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Betty’s actions [1,10] were highly reminiscent of the tool bending exhibited by wild crows in our 3 recentﬁeldstudies[4,7](electronicsupplementarymaterial,movieS1).Sofar,wehaveobservedthree distinct bending techniques : most birds trapped sticks underfoot before bending the tool shaft by phpauurlldlliinnsgguratfnhadece/ssohrtaocftoﬂnestixrdotehlwleeadfyursontc(a3titoitoninmaloeefs)nt,hdjeu(b8stiltliam(s4e5Bst)ei,tmtaynesdhbaaydn1od0thosenurebwj[e1ec,dt1s0g),]e.bduOtthuoernmﬁenuadlpsironiggphsutsthhineetdroefthoooorellesssaubggeagfionerssett .rsos.royalso that Betty, who had been wild-caught as a young bird, may well have expressed behaviours during .cie test trials that were an existing part of her natural repertoire, rather than innovative solutions to an .typ .u unfIanmailfioalrlopwro-bulpemst.udy,Bettydeveloped,overmultipletrials,differentbendingtechniquesforanovel .blishin fmoratefuriratlh(earludmisicnuiussmiosnt,rispese),[a3d])d.inPglacsutircvitaytuirnettoecshtrnaiiqguhetthooasls,naontdyreetdubceienngfiotirnmUal-lsyhainpvedesotingeaste([d10w,1i1t]h; .g.org cbamrerneoqandwtudeisrsirunieahgbmlaj,teenecmndctthslosinvn.oiBigfqeteuentnSteay1stm,uhwraSaiadtkclheeanpDledslsaeoesnl3muitb,s6ameen;rdtaa[h4(ttunee])rso,itsnaotsl-oesuolm,g-rsbgshmue(asteifntlttieiwnmcagtdoraojlutilnhnysiadtcpmtisvliebuiandepbntuplsedal)edilnsmsutghireciannkbvtsgeae,hrbfyaboavermmieaongabutioenroorgbiissask(ele,reilmnvwedecoedtevrresoitdenoanSicse1dem,sntSuphscpiiletnopinvyldeeesomm5wt,uoe6enl;lttt[liaai4pnsr]l)kyge, .R.Soc.opensci.3 .: as tools in a range of tool-selectivity experiments, for which no (attempted) bending was reported .16 .0 [12–14].Ourﬁeldstudiesnotonlydemonstratewithin-andbetween-birdvariationinbendingbehaviour .43 9 ,butalsoindicatesomecontextdependence:incertainforagingsituations(e.g.‘larvaﬁshing’,), and when using certain tool types/materials (non-hooked stick tools in recent experiments), bending seemscomparativelyrare.Wearecurrentlyinvestigatingtheseissuesindedicatedexperiments.