Contents NotesonContributors vii Acknowledgements x Foreword xi Introduction 1 JoyDamousiandMarianoBenPlotkin Section1 PsychoanalysisandTransnational Modernism 1 Three Roads from Vienna: Psychoanalysis, Modernism and SocialWelfare 19 ElizabethAnnDanto 2 Beyond the Blues: Richard Wright, Psychoanalysis, and the ModernIdeaofCulture 43 EliZaretsky Section2 PsychoanalysisandTransnationalPolitics 3 Primitivity,AnimismandPsychoanalysis:EuropeanVisions oftheNative‘Soul’intheDutchEastIndies,1900–1949 73 FrancesGouda 4 FascismBecomesDesire:OnFreud,Mussoliniand TransnationalPolitics 97 FedericoFinchelstein Section3 TheTransnationalDiffusionof Psychoanalysis 5 TheTravellingPsychoanalyst:AndrewPetoand Transnational Explorations of Psychoanalysis in Budapest, SydneyandNewYork 127 JoyDamousi v November15,2008 15:13 MAC/TTU Page-v 9780230_516779_01_prexii.
Acknowledgements We would like to thank Dr. Darwin Stapleton and the wonderful staff oftheRockefellerArchiveCentre,andespeciallyNorineHotchman,for theirsupportandforfosteringastimulatingenvironmentofintellectual exchange.ThanksarealsoduetoWarwickAndersonandRichardKeller, theconveyorsofthe‘UnconsciousDominions:ComparingHistoriesof Psychoanalysis, Empire, and Citizenship’ workshop held at the Uni- versity of Wisconsin-Madison in 2005, where we had the opportunity of meeting and discussing the possibility of this project the ﬁrst time.
Foreword “The Transnational Unconscious” is an intriguing title for a collection of essays on the history of psychoanalysis. How can the unconscious be transnational? On the surface it might be thought that human consciousness is a deeply personal phenomenon and cannot, there- fore, be duplicated between individuals, let alone transferred across nationalborders.Onreﬂection,however,itbecomesclearthatthevery essence of unconsciousness is something that transcends national and other political divisions. It does not matter in which country one lives when speaking of one’s unconscious desires, dreams, and inhibitions.
Introduction JoyDamousi and Mariano Ben Plotkin Dr. Pieter Mattheus van Wufften Palthe was a Dutch psychiatrist who characterizedthepost-WorldWarIIJavanesenationalistmovementasa pathologicalmanifestationoftheJavanese’spsyche.RichardWrightwas anAmericanblackleftistintellectualtryingtomakesenseof(andresist) theplaceofblackpeopleinAmericansocietybygivingavoicetotheir subjectivity.Whatdothesetwostorieshaveincommon?BothDr.Pieter MattheusvanWufftenPaltheandRichardWrightenlistedpsychoanaly- sisasananalytic–andwecouldsaypolitical–tooltoachievetheirends.
1 Three Roads from Vienna: Psychoanalysis, Modernism and Social Welfare Elizabeth Ann Danto If the transnational trends set by de´but de sie`cle psychoanalysts pick up again,andifanalystsfollowthetoneofmodernismsetattheirCongress in 1918, the twenty-ﬁrst century should establish new records for advancesinpsychoanalyticthoughtandcare.Nearlyonehundredyears agoinBudapest,SigmundFreudhimselfledthewaywithacallfor“the conscienceofsociety[to]awake.”1InGermany,MaxEitingonandErnst Simmel rushed to implement Freud’s Social Democratic covenant and toactonFreud’sbeliefinachievableprogresswith,amongotherstrate- gies,“clinicswheretreatmentwillbefree.”2 TheBritishpsychoanalysts of the 1920s got caught up in the spirit too, though their modernism wasnot,onthewhole,asopenhandedasthatoftheircolleaguesacross theChannel.Almostwithoutexceptiontheanalysts’urbanactivismwas locatedwithinandamongnationswheregovernmentsandcitizensalike engineered deliberately new forms of social welfare planning. When we associate modernism with the history of psychoanalysis, we may perhaps envision a circle of intellectuals chatting at the Cafe´ Central, occasional incursions into art history, or even a sexually charged cin- ematic interpretation. Similarly, when the concept of transnationalism is coupled with psychoanalysis, we still respect the traditional distinct nation-state boundaries. This essay, then, aims to shift this ambiguous narrative from psychoanalysis as a lone clinical construction, to psy- choanalysisasamodernistsocialwelfareideology,bornofde´butdesie`cle Viennaandbredasaﬂowofideasandpracticesacrossgeographies.
2 Beyond the Blues: Richard Wright, Psychoanalysis, and the Modern Idea of Culture EliZaretsky Introduction:theplaceoftransnationalpsychoanalysisin African-Americanhistory The transformation in the self-image of American blacks between 1903, when The Souls of Black Folk appeared, and the 1963 March on Washingtonisoneofthemostinspiringepisodesinallofhistory.Early twentiethcenturyblackAmericawasaravagedcontinent,rural,proto- literateandimpoverished,stilldominatedbylordsandmasters,whether plantation-ownersandex-confederates,internaldespotssuchasBooker T. Washington, or Northern patrons, “philanthropists,” and political mentors.AfewyearsbeforeTheSoulsofBlackFolkappeared,whensome black college students in Alabama accidentally wandered into a white railroad car, their black college president, William H. Council, called themintohisofﬁcewiththewords,“Youallhaveruinedme,”andthen, weeping,handedhisresignationtothewhiteboardoftrustees.1Byway ofcontrast,similarlysituatedblackcollegestudentslaunchedtheCivil Rightsmovement in theDeepSouthin the1950s.Facingdownintim- idation, jail, and lynching, their actions culminated in the March on WashingtonandtheCivilRightsActsof1964and1965.
3 Primitivity, Animism and Psychoanalysis: European Visions of the Native ‘Soul’ in the Dutch East Indies, 1900–1949 Frances Gouda As a small European democracy in Northern Europe, the Netherlands had achieved political and economic mastery of a large and lucrative colonial empire in Southeast Asia. During the decades before and after 1900, the Dutch empire in the Indonesian archipelago was “rounded off from Sabang to Merauke,” that is, from the Sabang harbor on the northwestern tip of Sumatra to the town of Merauke on the eastern- mostborderofDutch-controlledterritoryontheislandof(Papua)New Guinea. The Netherlands’ self-described role as gidsland (guiding force or guiding light) in colonial affairs – “a Cunning David amidst the Goliaths of Empire”1 – renders twentieth-century Dutch East Indies scholarshipconcerningethnicculturalcustomsandconventions(adat), Islam and animist religions and the vagaries of the “native soul” par- ticularly interesting. Because of a Dutch desire to project itself as international and a progressive pioneer in the proper management of EuropeancolonialpowerinAsia,itspossessionoftheenormousIndone- sian archipelago placated the “oversensitivity of a small nation with a heroic past” and substantiated its claim to be a mouse that could stillroar.2 As in other European countries and the United States, the psycho- analytic ideas of Sigmund Freud began to percolate in the Netherlands during the ﬁrst decades of the twentieth century. As elsewhere, pro- fessional psychiatrists and physicians were internally divided in their responses to Freud’s new insights, which resulted in a lively scholarly debate. Due to the interconnectedness of the Netherlands’ national identity with its role as an imperial superpower in Asia, however, the new psychoanalytical emphasis on the role of the universality of 73 September12,2008 16:6 MAC/TTU Page-73 9780230_516779_05_cha03.