The Construction of Mental Representations During Reading Edited by Herre van Oostendorp Utrecht University Susan R.Goldman Vanderbilt University LAWRENCE ERLBAUM ASSOCIATES, PUBLISHERS Mahwah, New Jersey London.
Contents Introduction: Some Initial Considerations vii 1 I: Models of Processing and Representation 1.Incrementality in Discourse Understanding 3 Simon Garrod and Anthony Sanford 2.Modeling Causal Integration and Availability of Information During Comprehension of Narrative Texts 25 Mark Langston and Tom Trabasso 3.The Landscape Model of Reading: Inferences and the Online Construction of Memory Representation 62 Paul van den Broek, Michael Young, Yuhtsuen Tzeng, and Tracy Linderholm 4.Toward a Theory of Documents Representation 88 Charles A.Perfetti, Jean-François Rouet, and M.Anne Britt 5. Context Models in Discourse Processing 109 Teun A.van Dijk II: Processes and Strategies of Representation Construction 132 6.The Intermediate Effect: Interaction Between Prior Knowledge and Text Structure 134 Stéphanie Caillies, Guy Denhière, and Sandra Jhean-Larose 7.Building Representations of Informational Text: Evidence From Children’s Think-Aloud Protocols 151 Nathalie Coté and Susan R.Goldman 8.The Role of Illustrations in Text Comprehension: What, When, for Whom, and Why? 175 Valérie Gyselinck and Hubert Tardieu 9.The Role of Situational Continuity in Narrative Understanding 196 Joseph P.Magliano, Rolf A.Zwaan, Art Graesser 10.Learning From Text: Structural Knowledge Assessment in the Study of Discourse Comprehension 220 Evelyn C.Ferstl and Walter Kintsch .
Introduction: Some Initial Considerations Some of the earliest research on reading was concerned with how readers process a text and make meaning from the printed information. For example, Buswell (1920) was one of the first to investigate readers’ eye movements during reading. His work was guided by the structural characteristics of the printed text, for example, where on the page readers fixated. His analytic descriptions were in terms of the parts of the line and page rather than on the informational or functional properties of the fixated text. Buswell’s emphasis was consistent with the larger theoretical zeitgeist of that time, emphasizing structural approaches to language.
Chapter 1 Incrementality in Discourse Understanding Simon Garrod Anthony Sanford University of Glasgow Twenty years ago in the annual review of experimental psycholinguistics, Johnson-Laird (1974) defined the fundamental problem as that of establishing what happens when we understand sentences: what mental operations occur, when in relation to language perception, and in what order. So, psychologists have a long-standing interest in the time course of language processing, and it is against this background that we consider the issue of incrementality in discourse understanding.
Chapter 2 Modeling Causal Integration and Availability of Information During Comprehension of Narrative Texts Mark Langston Tom Trabasso The University of Chicago In this chapter, we report on an approach to the study of comprehension that employs a combination of discourse analysis and connectionist modeling. In so doing, we provide a theoretical account for how readers make causal inferences and construct dynamic representations of the text over the course of processing sentences. We focus on how clause information is accessed and integrated during reading. The basis for availability and integration of clauses is the use of knowledge about events, agents, emotions, intentions, goals, plans, actions, and outcomes to understand what happens in narratives. The discourse analysis, based on logical criteria, is used to identify the causal relations that might be inferred by readers between the clauses of the narrative text. The connectionist model integrates each new clause into a narrative context of prior clauses via causal connections between clauses.
Chapter 3 The Landscape Model of Reading: Inferences and the Online Construction of a Memory Representation Paul van den Broek University of Minnesota Michael Young University of Iowa Yuhtsuen Tzeng Tracy Linderholm University of Minnesota How do readers construct a memory representation from the texts they read? How does the actu- al process of going through a text and comprehending individual sentences translate into a mental representation of the text that lingers far after the reader has put down the book? In this chapter we present a detailed description of the way in which cognitive processes during reading allow the gradual emergence of a memory representation. Central to this description is the notion that concepts and propositions fluctuate in their activation as the reader progresses through the text. Using core notions from research on human memory and memory access, we show how this landscape of activations results in a memory representation.
Chapter 4 Toward a Theory of Documents Representation Charles A.Perfetti University of Pittsburgh Jean-François Rouet University of Poitiers M.Anne Britt University of Pittsburgh In this chapter, we add some considerations to existing theories of text, moving beyond the notions of text base and situation model to outline a theory of documents. The essential idea of this theory—actually a framework for a theory—is that the intelligent use of texts entails mental representations of specific texts, situations described in texts, and relations among texts. Our aim is to explain some of the ways this claim is correct and to show some of the features required of a richer model of text representation. As part of this effort, we first critically examine the important distinction between situations and texts.