Page iii The Sutra of Perfect Enlightenment Korean Buddhism's Guide to Meditation (With Commentary by the Son Monk Kihwa) Translated and with an Introduction by A. Charles Muller State University of New York Press .
Page iv Published by State University of New York Press, Albany © 1999 State University of New York All rights reserved Printed in the United States of America No part of this book may be used or reproduced in any manner whatsoever without written permission. No part of this book may be stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means including electronic, electrostatic, magnetic tape, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or other wise without the prior permission in writing of the publisher.
Page v CONTENTS Preface vii Abbreviations and Conventions xi Introduction 1 What Is the Sutra of Perfect Enlightenment? 3 Chinese Origins and Effects 4 The Sutra of Perfect Enlightenment in Korea Before Kihwa 16 Kihwa (Hamho Tukt'ong) 24 The SPE after Kihwa: The Choson Period 35 The Sutra of Perfect Enlightenment Today 37 Overview of the Sutra of Perfect Enlightenment 40 Translation 49 Kihwa's Introduction 51 1. Mañjusri Bodhisattva 70 2. Samantabhadra Bodhisattva 86 3. Universal Vision Bodhisattva 100 4. Vajragarbha Bodhisattva 121 5. Maitreya Bodhisattva 136 6. Pure Wisdom Bodhisattva 153 7. Power and Virtue Unhindered Bodhisattva 166 8. Voice of Discernment Bodhisattva 182 9. Purifier of All Karmic Hindrances Bodhisattva 198 10. Universal Enlightenment Bodhisattva 217 11. Perfect Enlightenment Bodhisattva 228 12. Most Excellent of Worthies Bodhisattva 240 Appendix: Kihwa's Revised Edition of the Sutra 247 Notes 287 Works Cited 307 Index 317 .
Page vii PREFACE I first came across the Sutra of Perfect Enlightenment (SPE) at the outset of my graduate studies in East Asian Buddhism at the University of Virginia, where, in the course of my reading of late T'ang and Sung Ch'an works, I found the sutra cited with frequency. Some further investigation led me to understand that the SPE was one of the most important documents in the history of the Ch'an tradition—that it had long served as a definitive guide to meditation practice, and that it had been studied and extensively commented on by a number of Ch'an luminaries, not least of whom was Tsungmi, the influential T'ang dynasty scholarmonk. Knowing this, I wondered at the fact that aside from a 1962 translation by Charles Luk, there was almost nothing else to be found on the sutra in the English language. My interest thus aroused, I began to study the text in earnest, along with its various commentaries and its historical background—and began my initial work at the English translation presented here.
Page viii a position from which it would never be displaced. This work also led me to deeper investigation into the oeuvre of Kihwa, one of the most influential scholarmonks in Korean Buddhist history. I ended up doing my dissertation on Kihwa, and presently have other projects in progress concerning his works. Upon completing my dissertation, I was fortunate enough to receive a grant allowing me a period of concentrated and secluded study in Korea, during which time I returned with full attention to the SPE and Kihwa's commentary, finally completing my draft translation of the combined text.
Page ix of the manuscript, offered valuable suggestions for its improvement. I would also like to offer my heartfelt thanks to Jin Young Park, who carefully checked my translation, and saved me from much possible embarrassment. Valuable corrections and suggestions on the introduction were made by my colleague here at Toyo Gakuen, Brian McVeigh. The main part of the translation was completed during my stay in 1994 at the Academy of Korean Studies, with the generous financial support of the Korea Foundation, and I would like to thank both of these organizations for their support. Finally, much thanks are deserved by my wife Maki, who has supported me in countless ways during the long process of finishing this work.
Page xi ABBREVIATIONS AND CONVENTIONS AMF — Treatise on the Awakening of Mahayana Faith (Tasheng ch'ihsin lun ) CYC— Compilation of Yungchia of the Ch'an School (Ch'antsung Yungchia chi ) DS — ) HPC —Han'guk pulgyo chonso (The Collected Texts of Korean Buddhism ) SHM — Sutra of the Heroic March Samadhi (Suramgamasutra, Shoulengyen ching ) SPE — Sutra of Perfect Enlightenment (Yüan chüeh ching ) T — Taisho shinshu daizokyo Z — Dai nihon zokuzokyo Terms that are originally of Sanskrit origin but that are now included in English language dictionaries will not normally be diacriticalized, unless the situation calls for it. For example, the term sutra will not be diacriticalized in general circumstances, nor will it be diacriticalized in English titles of scriptures, such as Platform Sutra. But it will be diacriticalized in the context of the Sanskrit title of a text, such as Vajrasamadhisutra.