INTRODUCTION The erection of frame structures has been an important responsibility of Army engineers since Washington's day. Large-scale operations of recent times conducted in relatively undeveloped areas such as the Pacific region in World War II, Korea, and Vietnam resulted in the expenditure of tremendous effort on frame structures. This experience, plus the threat of nuclear conflict and the need for frame buildings in nonwar situations, makes it highly likely that you, as an engineer, will, from time to time, be responsible for some phase of this kind of construction. The objective of this subcourse is to provide you with the fundamentals of planning and supervising the construction of frame structures which comprise the basic type of building in a theater of operations. It will also orient you in the fundamentals of construction print reading. You will learn about building layout procedures; framing details of substructures, superstructures, and roofs; kinds and properties of timber; and planning and estimating material and labor requirements for frame construction. Emphasis is on simplified theater-of-operations construction. However, some details of conventional construction are also included for use as a general guide and for use in rehabilitation and repair of existing structures. The subcourse consists of five lessons and an examination divided as follows: Lesson 1. Construction Print Reading - Building Layout and Substructures. 2. Superstructures - Framing. 3. Roofing-Finishing Details. 4. Materials Estimating. 5. Construction Methods and Standards - Planning Estimates. Examination. Fourteen credit hours are allowed for the Subcourse. You will not be limited as to the number of hours you may spend on the subcourse, the solution to any lesson or the examination. The format of this subcourse has been changed to facilitate student self-pacing and to eliminate the necessity of submitting to the USAES each lesson answer sheet for grading. Each lesson in this subcourse is followed by a number of Self Test questions and exercises designed for a review of that lesson. After completing study of the lesson, you should answer the questions in the space provided below each, then turn to the back of the subcourse booklet where the correct answers to the Self Test have been included. A comparison of your answers with those given in the back of the subcourse will indicate your knowledge and understanding of the material presented. When you have completed all lessons to your satisfaction, complete and forward the Examination answer card which you will find in the subcourse packet. The grade you receive on the examination is your grade for the subcourse. i .
LESSON 1 CONSTRUCTION PRINT READING - BUILDING LAYOUT AND SUBSTRUCTURES CREDIT HOURS.3 TEXT ASSIGNMENT.Attached memorandum. MATERIALS REQUIRED.None. SUGGESTIONS.Pay particular attention to nomenclature. A construction supervisor must be thoroughly familiar with the names of building members. LESSON OBJECTIVES Upon completion of this lesson you should be causes of deterioration, standard sizes, grades, and able to accomplish the following in the indicated the meaning and method of calculating board feet. topic areas: 3. Methods of fastening. Describe the different methods commonly used for fastening wood 1. Prints and drawings. Read and interpret and the circumstances under which each type would correctly, construction prints and architectural be used. drawings. 4. Building layout. Supervise the layout of a 2. Lumber. Define the different types of fame building from the installation of batter boards wood, good and bad features of each type, defect, through laying of the subfloor. ATTACHED MEMORANDUM 1-1. TYPES OF BUILDINGS b. Semipermanent buildings are those which by the design, use of materials and equipment, Army regulations classify all buildings and methods of construction will, with normal constructed or used by the Army as permanent, maintenance, provide structures with an economic semipermanent, or temporary. The basis for life of less than 25 years and more than 5 years. classification is as follows: c. Temporary buildings are those which by design and the use of minimum-quality materials, a. Permanent buildings are those which equipment, and methods of construction will, with are laid out and designed to have a degree of minimum maintenance, provide structures with an structural adequacy, durability, and service-ability to economic life of 5 years or less. This group of assure a useful life of 25 years or more with low buildings includes: maintenance and service expenditures. (1) Factory-fabricated type buildings which can be readily erected and dismantled.
(2) Emergency construction type d. There are many processes used to make buildings. intermediates and prints. They an be classified as either negative or positive contact processes or (3) Buildings constructed for optical processes. Contact processes require a temporary use, to include expedients. The subject transparent or translucent original. Optical copies matter of this subcourse applies particularly to the can be made from opaque originals. They are usually frame structures used in a theater of operations (TO). more expensive and introduce more distortion. As an engineer officer, you may be expected to take charge of this type of building operation. (1) Negative contact processes. (a) Blueprints. A blueprint is 1-2. ARCHITECTURAL DRAWINGS AND made by placing a tracing (transparent or translucent PRINTS original) in contact with a sensitized paper and exposing the paper through the tracing. When the a. Basic to the successful accomplishment paper is developed, the unexposed portions where the of any building construction assignment is the ability light is blocked by lines on the original remain white, to read architectural drawings or prints. It can be while the exposed portions turn dark blue. This extremely difficult for an individual to describe the produces a print with white lines on a blue size and shape of a simple object without a drawing background. Blueprints, in general, have better of some kind. For example, if an architect designed a contrast than other commonly used processes of simple structure, it would be difficult to convey his comparable cost but the wet developing process idea to the person who is to fabricate the structure causes some distortion, and marking the prints is without a drawing to show the shape, size, and difficult. spacing of members. (b) Brownprints. The brownline b. Drawing or sketching is the universal print process (often called Van Dyke) is similar to the language used by engineers, technicians, and skilled blueprint process except that the paper is transparent craftsmen. Whether this drawing is made freehand or and exposed areas turn brown when developed. This by the use of drawing instruments (mechanical yields transparent lines on a brown background. drawing), it is needed to convey all the necessary Brownprints are frequently used as inter mediates information to the individual who will fabricate and producing a print which has blue lines on a white assemble the object whether it be a building, ship, background and called whiteprint. aircraft, or a mechanical device. If many people are involved in the fabrication of the object, copies will (2) Positive contact processes. be made of the original drawing or tracing so that all (a) Ozalid prints. The ozalid persons involved will have the same information. process is a contact process like blueprinting but the c. Drawings are normally classified as unexposed areas of the sensitized paper turn blue original drawings, intermediate or reproducibles, or when developed in ammonia vapor, producing blue prints. The original drawing is the one produced by lines on a white background. These are called the draftsman. An intermediate is a copy of the blueprints. Papers are also available which yield original which is used to make prints. An black lines (called blackline prints). The intermediate is used to avoid the risk of damaging the development in this process is dry, causing less original or because the original is not suitable for the distortion than the blueprint process, but the contrast type of reproduction process used for the making of is usually not as good. These are normally used for prints. Prints may also be made directly from the Army prints. original without using an intermediate drawing. A Note: Machines are available which print is a working copy to be used on the job. produce ozalid-process prints but which project and reduce the 1-2 .
image optically instead of contact- section. Where necessary, the section lines may be printing. Prints produced by this connected by a line of short, heavy dashes indicating process will usually be marked the exact path of the cutting plane. "Reduced Size Print-Do Not Scale." e. Dimension lines. Dimension lines are (b) Brownline prints. Brownline thin (light) unbroken lines with arrowheads used to paper has the same function in the ozalid process as indicate the extent of a dimension on a drawing. The the brown papers do in the blueprint process. They dimensions may be placed above the dimension line, produce brown lines on a transparent background and on a break in the dimension, or, where space is are often used as an intermediate for making blueline limited, as close as possible to the end of the prints. Brownline prints are often called sepia dimension line. The extent of the dimension is from intermediates. arrow head to arrowhead, and is expressed in feet and inches on civil engineering drawings. (c) Special materials. Materials are available for use with the ozalid process which f. Extension lines. When it is not produce a large variety of results, including many convenient to draw a dimension line directly between colored lines on white paper or colored lines on a the visible lines it applies to, the visible line is clear plastic background. extended by a thin (light) unbroken extension line which almost touches the end of the visible line. The extension line indicates the extent of the dimension 1-3. LINE CONVENTIONS lines which have an arrow touching it. Lines are symbols used on prints to show g. Break lines. The break line indicates information necessary for construction. Figure 1-1 that the object has been shortened to save space on shows the types of lines commonly used on drawings the drawing. The true length is indicated by the and prints. dimension specified. The long break line is a thin (light) line interrupted by a z-shaped symbol. The a. Visible lines. A heavy- or medium- short break line convention varies with shape and weight unbroken line is used for the primary feature material, and indicates that part of the object has been of a drawing. For drawings of objects, this line cut away to show section detail or hidden features. convention represents the edges, the intersection of two surfaces, and the surface limit that is visible from 1-4. SCALES AND SCALING the viewing angle of the drawing. This line is often Measuring dimensions on a print is called called the outline. scaling. Due to possible distortion of the print, b. Hidden lines. A medium-weight line scaling should be avoided as much as possible. of evenly spaced short dashes represents an edge, the When scaling is essential, however, be sure to check intersection of two surfaces, and the surface limit for accuracy by applying the scale you are using to which is not visible from the viewing angle of the one or more of the important dimensions normally drawing. shown on a print. c. Center lines. A thin (light) line a. Types of scales composed of alternate long and short dashes is called (1) Architects'. Architects' scales (1, fig. a center line. It is used to signify the center of a 1-2) are divided proportionally into feet and inches circle or are and to divide objects into equal or and are generally used in scaling drawings for symmetrical parts. machine and structural work. The triangular d. Cutting plane lines. A pair of short, architects' scale usually contains 11 scales, each heavy lines with arrowheads projected at 900 subdivided differently. Six scales read from the left indicates the cutting plane when a drawing includes a end, while five scales read from the right end. 1, section. Letters (A-A, B-B. etc.) are usually placed at figure 1-2 shows how the 3/16-inch subdivision at the the arrowheads to identify the section. The end arrowheads show the viewing direction of the 1-3 .
of the scale is further subdivided into 12 equal parts as a reduced or enlarged print. This type of scale is representing 1 inch each and the 3/32-inch used with standard Army plans for frame structures. subdivision into six equal parts representing 2 inches b. Methods of sealing. each. (1) Architects' or engineers' scales. (2) Engineers'. Engineers' scales (2, The method of scaling using architects' or engineers' fig. 1-2) are divided into decimal graduations (10, 20, scales is as follows: 30, 40, 50, and 60 divisions to the inch). These scales are used for plotting and map drawing and in (a) Determine the SCALE of the the graphic solution of problems. print from the notation given such as 1/4 inch = 1 foot-0 inches; 1 inch = 20 feet; 3/16 inch = 1 foot-0 (3) Metric. Metric scales (3, fig. 1-2) inches and so forth. are used in conjunction with the drawings, maps, and so forth that are made in countries using the metric (b) Select the corresponding scale system. This system is also being used with on the architects' or engineers' scale. increasing frequency in the United States. The scale (c) Using the proper scale, is divided into centimeters and millimeters. In measure the desired dimensions on the print. Figure conversion, 2.54 centimeters (cm) are equal to 1 inch. 1-3 illustrates the use of an architects' scale. Note (4) Graphic. Graphic scales (4, fig. 1- that alining the 1-foot mark with the right hand end 2) are lines subdivided into distances corresponding of the footing gives a direct reading of 1 foot, 9 to convenient units of length on the ground or of the inches for the length of the footing. object represented by the tracing. The graphic scale (2) Graphic scales. The procedure is placed in or near the title block of the drawing, and normally used with graphic scales is as follows: the relationship of its length to the scale of the drawing is not affected if the drawing is reproduced Figure 1-3. Scaling a dimension. 1-6 .