SOAS SOUTH ASIAN TEXTS NO. 2 The Hindi Classical Tradition A Braj Bhasa Reader Rupert Snell Reader in Hindi, School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London SCHOOL OF ORIENTAL AND AFRICAN STUDIES UNIVERSITY OF LONDON London 1991 .
Published by The School of Oriental and African Studies, (University of London), Thornhaugh Street, Russell Square, London WC1H0XG © Rupert Snell, 1991 To Mahesh Patel British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data Snell, Rupert The Hindi classical tradition: a Braj Bhasa reader. I. Title 491.43 ISBN 0-7286-0175-3 W Tfefr ^ ff srft- i l RmT iriri 'HTf ST^friT II Printed in Great Britain by Billing and Sons Ltd., Worcester .
SO AS South Asian Texts During the period of British colonial rule in India, members of the education services and others felt it to be a natural part of their duties to edit important works of South Asian literature, so as to make them accessible to English-speaking readers. The initiative represented by these nineteenth century editions, which are now difficult to obtain, has sadly long been allowed to lapse. The present series of SOAS South Asian Texts represents an attempt to revive this tradition in such a way as to meet the rather different requirements and expectations of students of South Asian literature today. The series is designed for those who have a basic reading knowledge of the language, but require the assistance of explanatory material in English in approaching original literary texts. All volumes in the series accordingly begin with an editorial introduction in English, followed by the text itself, which is accompanied by explanatory notes and a glossary. It has not been thought necessary to provide translations of modern prose, but older verse texts are accompanied by full English translations. Though these renderings are primarily designed to assist understanding of the original, and themselves make no claim to any literary merit, it is hoped that they and the editorial introductions may serve to introduce some of the classics of South Asian literature to those unable to read them in their original language. Christopher Shackle Rupert Snell Series Editors .
Preface In modern usage, the name ‘Hindi’ refers increasingly narrowly to the Khari Bolt dialect which underlies Modem Standard Hindi (MSH) both in its spoken and its literary forms. Yet until about the middle of the nineteenth century, the literatures of the ‘Hindi’- speaking area were dominated by other dialects, principal of which were Braj Bhasa and Avadhi. Braj Bhasa in particular gained a literary currency well beyond the borders of the area where it was (and is) spoken as a mother-tongue; the association of the cultural district of Braj, centred on the towns of Mathura and Vrindaban, with the Krsna religion made it a natural choice as the vehicle for devotional verse, and its linguistic and literary conventions were enthusiastically adopted for a wider range of court and popular verse. This book seeks to introduce some of the main genres and styles of Braj Bhasa literature to readers already having a confident grasp of MSH. Though obviously falling far short of being fully representative, the choice of works excerpted here is intended to reflect a standard repertory of the classical, or pre-modem, tradition. Texts for which full and annotated translations are already published elsewhere (e.g. the major Braj Bhasa texts of Tulsidas and Nanddas) have not been included; and considerations of space have excluded other major figures such as Haridas, Kesav, and Ghananand. The natural juxtapositioning of devotional poems with examples of a more worldly or even decadent taste has not been interrupted by any attempt to delineate literary ‘eras’ (kal), since traditional designations such as bhakti kal, riti kal disguise the natural heterogeneity of the literature under review. Several of the works reproduced here include some verses whose popular attribution to a particular author may rest on dubious — if time-honoured — assumptions about literary and religious history: this aspect of the texts, so typical a feature of Indian literary history, is discussed in the Introduction. The Introduction has a practical emphasis, being intended to service an appreciation of the texts included in the reader rather than to attempt the kind of exhaustive coverage of Braj Bhasa grammar and literary history already available elsewhere. It falls into three main parts. The first, in which a familiarity with MSH (and such grammatical features as the formation of causative verbs) is assumed, is an outline grammar of Braj Bhasa, drawing heavily on the texts themselves for examples. The second introduces Hindi metrics, concentrating primarily (but not exclusively) on metres exemplified in this book. The third part attempts a survey history of the literature of the period, and gives brief introductions to the authors and the texts, with reference to other English-medium introductory materials; it concludes with a note of some textual conventions and dating systems. This section is followed by concordances to the published texts from which the extracts have been drawn, and by a select bibliography. While the scope of the Introduction has been defined by the contents of the texts themselves, it is hoped that it may also be found helpful in approaching parallel literatures such as the Avadhi verse of Tulsidas and the Sufi poets. The first two texts are in prose (a rarity in pre-modern writing) and consequently offer a more accessible entree into the literature than can be hoped for in the formalized and elliptical contexts of verse, where word order and syntax are often subjugated to the different requirements of literary rhetoric. The prose selections are not translated, but ix .
annotations at the foot of the page gloss any obscurities of lexis or phrasing; line numbers CONTENTS have been added for ease of reference, and are in Nagari to avoid confusion with the annotation references, which are marked by superscript footnote numbers in this ‘prose’ SOAS South Asian Texts vii section. The remaining texts, all in verse, are arranged chronologically and follow a standard format: Braj Bhasa text on the left-hand page is faced by an English translation, Preface ix and by annotations which refer to verse and line number (e.g. ‘12.4’) such that they can be Abbreviations xv approached from either the original or the translation. It must be emphasized that the Sigla of Reader Texts xv translations have been kept deliberately literal, as they are intended as a key to the meaning System of Transliteration xv and, where possible, the syntax of the Braj verses: no attempt has been made to echo the poetic diction of the originals. A brief Index of Epithets and Motifs lists the most common of the allusive titles, INTRODUCTION patronymics etc. which throng any traditional poem to the exasperation of the novice reader. Finally, a complete Glossary lists all the words in the texts; etymologies following PARTI: GRAMMAR 3 the English definitions are based closely on CDIAL. The Introduction is best used by reference from the texts themselves, and the first of 1.1 PHONOLOGY AND ORTHOGRAPHY 4 the prose texts, Raj-niti, makes a more accessible starting-point than the necessarily dry 1.1.1 Vowels 5 paragraphs of Part I; Raj-nlti is relatively straightforward linguistically, and its Aesop-like 1.1.2 Consonants 5 contexts require no background information. Once Raj-nlti and the following Varta 1.1.3 Conjuncts 5 episodes have introduced the morphology of Braj Bhasa, the reader should confidently be 1.1.4 Nasality 6 able to begin on the verse texts, beginning perhaps with the Sur-sagar. Readers looking 1.1.5 Sanskritization 6 for a limited sampling of verse types might usefully take verses from Sur-sagar, Sujan- Raskhan and the Satsai of Biharilal as a ‘core’ selection, light relief being always available 1.2 NOUNS 6 in the Sabha-bilas poems. I am grateful to a number of colleagues who have commented on various parts of this 1.3 ADJECTIVES 7 book: the heaviest debt of gratitude is due to Professor J.C. Wright, whose scrupulous examination of the etymologies in the Glossary has provided much enlightenment and 1.4 PRONOUNS 7 saved me from many an embarrassment. I am also grateful to Professor C. Shackle for 1.4.1 Demonstrative, near reference 7 numerous suggestions on the presentation of the material; to Mr S.C.R. Weightman for 1.4.2 Demonstrative, distant reference 7 championing the cause of the Bhasa-bhusan and for loans of numerous books; to Dr R.D. 1.4.3 Demonstrative-correlative 7 Gupta for his discussion of textual problems; and to Mr Simon Digby for providing a 1.4.4 Relative 8 photograph of a folio from a Raskhan manuscript in his collection. I.4.5a Personal, 1st person 8 The physical production of the book has been made possible by Apple Macintosh I.4.5b Personal, 2nd person 8 software devised by Dr K.E. Bryant of the University of British Columbia (‘Jaipur’ I.4.6a Interrogative, animate/inanimate 8 Devanagari font) and by Mr K.R. Norman of Cambridge University (‘Norman’ font for I.4.6b Interrogative, inanimate 8 Roman transliteration with diacritical marks); I am grateful to the SOAS Research and 1.4.7 Indefinite 8 Publications Committee for meeting the full costs of production, and to Martin Daly, Diana Matias, Alison Surry and Susan Madigan for their help in preparing the text for 1.5 VERBS 10 publication. Shortcomings in the book are, needless to say, all my own work. 1.5.1 Root, theme and stem 10 The shared enthusiasms of those for whom the contents of this book are part of a 1.5.2 The substantive verb, ho- 10 living culture have been a great incentive in the preparation of the material. In particular, 1.5.3 General present, and past imperfective 11 an unseen debt of gratitude is due to Mahesh Patel, to whom the book is consequently 1.5.4 Subjunctive-present 11 dedicated. 1.5.5 Perfective 12 1.5.6 Participial constructions 13 Rupert Snell 1.5.7 Future 13 I.5.7a -h- forms 13 I.5.7b Subjunctive-future 14 xi .
I.5.7c Extended -g- forms 14 PART III: BRAJ BHASA LITERATURE 29 1.5.8 Passives 14 1.5.8a Synthetic passive 14 III. 1 LITERARY GENRES OF THE SIXTEENTH TO EIGHTEENTH CENTURIES 29 1.5.8b Periphrastic passive (with ja-) 15 III. 1.1 The cultural significance of Braj and its language 30 1.5.9 Absolutives 15 III. 1.2 Principal trends in Braj Bhasa literature 32 1.5.10 Imperatives 15 1.5.11 Verbal nouns and infinitives 16 III.2 POETS AND TEXTUAL SOURCES 36 111.2.1 Lallulal: Raj-nlti (RN) 36 1.6 ADVERBS 16 111.2.2 Gokulnath/Hariray: Caurasi vaisnavan kl varta, Do sau bavail 1.7 POSTPOSITIONS 17 vaisnavan ki varta (W) 37 1.8 SUMMARY OF THE BRAJ VERB 18 m.2.3 Surdas: Sur-sagar (SS) 38 111.2.4 Mira: Padavali (MP) 39 111.2.5 Raskhan: Sujan-raskhan (SR) 39 111.2.6 Rahim: Barvai (RB) 40 PARTE: PROSODY 19 111.2.7 Bhagvat Mudit: Rasik-ananya-mal (RAM) 41 111.2.8 Biharilal: Satsal (BS) 42 II. 1 BASIC ELEMENTS 19 111.2.9 Jasvant Sirhh: Bhasa-bhusan (BhBh) 43 111.2.10 Vrnd: NIti-satsai (NS) ' ’ 44 II.2 MATRIX METRES 20 111.2.11 Dev: Astayam (AY) 44 111.2.12 Raslin: Ras-prabodh (RP) 45 n.2.1 Doha 20 111.2.13 Nagaridas: Arill-paclsl (AP) 45 n.2.2 Sortha 21 111.2.14 Lallulal: Sabha-bilas (SB) 46 II.2.3 Barvai 21 II.2.4 Aiill 21 III.3 SOME TEXTUAL CONVENTIONS 47 n.2.5 Caupaland Caupal 21 II.2.6 Mukri 22 111.3.1 Opening Formulae 47 H.2.7 Kundaliya 22 111.3.2 Colophons 48 II.2.8 Chappay 23 111.3.3 Dates and Chronograms 50 II.3 MATRIX METRES USED IN PADAS 24 CONCORDANCES 51 II.3.1 Sar 24 II.3.2 SarasI 25 SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY 53 II.3.3 Saman savaiya 25 II.3.4 Bt 26 THE TEXTS H.3.5 Karkha 26 II.3.6 Sahkar 26 Folio of a manuscript including verses by Raskhan 63 II.3.7 Rup-mala 26 1 Lallulal: Raj-nlti (RN) 65 II.4 VARNIK METRES 26 2 Gokulnath/Hariray: Caurasi & Do sau bavan vaisnavan kl varta (VV) 71 II.4.1 Pada metre with trochee base (GL) 26 3 Surdas: Sur-sagar (SS) 84 II.4.2 Pada metre with cretic base (GLG) 27 4 Mira: Padavali (MP) 104 II.4.3 Savaiya 27 5 Raskhan: Sujan-raskhan (SR) 110 II.4.4 Kavitt or Ghanaksari 28 6 Rahim: Barvai (RB) 122 7 Bhagvat Mudit: Rasik-ananya-mal (RAM) 128 xii xiii .
8 Biharilal: Satsal (BS) 134 ABBREVIATIONS 9 Jasvant Sirhh: Bhasa-bhusan (BhBh) 148 10 Vmd: NIti-satsai (NS) 160 abs. absolutive MSH Modem Standard Hindi Add. Addenda of CDIAL num. numeral 11 Dev: Astayam (AY) 166 Add2 Turner 1985 (see Bibliography) obj. object(ive) 12 Rasim: Ras-prabodh (RP) 172 adj. adjective, adjectival obi. oblique 13 Nagaridas: Arill-pacisi (AP) 176 At. Arabic part. particle 14 Lallulal: Sabha-bilas (SB) 184 aux. auxiliary (verb) Pers. Persian 15 Epilogue: Two Thumiis 190 BhP Bhagavata Purana pi. plural CDIAL Turner 1966 (see Bibliography) poss. possessive INDEX OF EPITHETS AND MOTIFS 191 emph. emphatic ppn. postposition(al) enc. enclitic pr. pronoun, pronominal GLOSSARY 197 esp. especially pref. prefix(ed) f. feminine ptc. participle, participial foil. following rh. form found in rhyme only indef. indefinite S [in Glossary] Sanskrit inf. infinitive sg- singular inteij. interjection Skt Sanskrit interr. interrogative subj. subjunctive KhB Khan Boll suf. suffix(ed) lit. literally vi. intransitive verb m. masculine vt. transitive verb SIGLA OF READER TEXTS AP Arill-pacisi (Nagaridas) RN Raj-niti (Lallulal) AY Astayam (Dev) RP Ras-prabodh (Raslin) BhBh Bhasa-bhusan (Jasvant Siriih) SB Sabha-bilas (Lallulal) BS Satsal (Biharilal) SR Sujan-raskhan (Raskhan) MP Padavali (Mira) SS Sur-sagar (Surdas) NS Niti-satsai (Vmd) W Caurasi vaisnavan ki varta & RAM Rasik-ananya-mal (Bhagvat Mudit) Do sau bavan vaisnavan ki RB Barvai (Rahim) varta (Gokulnath/Hariray) SYSTEM OF TRANSLITERATION Textual references are transliterated with ‘inherent’ a. Elsewhere, ‘inherent’ a is shown only after conjuncts (as in bhakta), in Sanskrit titles, and in some short words to follow established usage (e.g. rasa). Unmarked transliteration has been used for well-known place names and historical characters. Certain letters such as h and s are used to transliterate both Sanskrit and Arabic/Persian phonemes, since no confusion is possible in context. xiv xv .
I GRAMMAR1 Braj Bhasa is a member of the group of languages and dialects descended from the western form of Prakrit called Sauraseni. In terms of the genealogical model on which Indo-Aryan languages are traditionally categorized, Braj Bhasa occupies a place parallel with such neighbouring dialects as Khari Boll (KhB), Hariyani, Kanauji, etc., and also with such languages as Panjabi, Rajasthani, Gujarati, Marathi, and Bengali. These and other such languages constitute the ‘New Indo-Aryan’ (NIA) group; NIA languages, though individually distinct, share features of phonology and morphology which characterize them as parallel descendants of ‘Middle Indo-Aryan’ (MIA) languages, i.e. the Prakrits and various forms of Apabhramsa, which are themselves descended from Old Indo-Aryan (OLA), i.e. Vedic and the later forms of Sanskrit. This descent from OIA to NIA is typified by a gradual and progressive process of linguistic simplification, as is clearly seen in the example of grammatical inflexion, where the two main cases of Hindi (direct and oblique) are a distant echo of the fully inflecting syntax of Sanskrit with its eight distinct cases. In terms of phonology and morphology also, NIA languages show a process of simplification wherein, for example, the often complex consonant clusters of Sanskrit are reduced to more readily pronounceable forms. Paradoxically, however, the new demands put on NIA languages by twentieth-century contexts of language use has led to an unprecedented reliance on borrowings from Sanskrit and on the coining of neologisms from the inexhaustible stocks of the Sanskrit lexicon. As a result of this process, which is particularly conspicuous in the ‘standardized’ modern forms of Hindi and Bengali, the true NIA quality of these vernaculars tends to be disguised by the high proportion of Sanskrit loanwords. In comparison with Modern Standard Hindi (MSH), then, the Braj Bhasa of the ‘classical’ period of Hindi literature exhibits in relatively chaste form the true vernacular phonology and lexicon of NIA. Various sound changes characteristic of the NIA phonology of Braj are appropriately exemplified in the Krsna epithet savaro ‘the dark one’, a derivative of Sanskrit fyamala through MIA samala : the replacement of s by s; the simplification of an initial conjunct to a single consonant; the replacement of a medial consonant by a semivowel, and the accompanying nasalization of the preceding long vowel; the replacement of original final 1 by t ; and a direct case m.sg. ending in -o/-au (cf. MSH -a). bibliographical Note. The development of Indo-Aryan is summarized in G.A. Zograph 1982 and with greater detail in J. Bloch 1965; J. Beamcs 1966 follows a comparative approach to NIA grammar. For the wider Indo-European perspective see W.B. Lockwood 1969. H.S. Kellogg 1938 is a grammar of the various Hindi dialects, and includes useful comparative tabulations of grammatical forms. C. Shackle and R. Snell 1990 analyse the component elements of Hindi-Urdu and trace the divergent development of the two languages since 1800. R.S. McGregor 1968, an analysis of a sixteenth-century prose text, is the standard Braj Bhasa grammar; its categories have been usefully applied to a body of religious verse in M. Thiel-Horstmann 1983. 3 .