Contents Preface ix 1 Confucius’NoblePerson 1 2 TheNoblePathsofBuddhaandRama 13 3 BuddhistSpiritualityandChineseCivility 44 4 ShÇtoku’sConstitutionandtheCivil OrderinEarlyJapan 63 5 ChrysanthemumandSwordRevisited 80 6 TheNewLeadershipandCivilSociety inSongChina 119 7 CivilandMilitaryinTokugawaJapan 147 8 CitizenandSubjectinModernJapan 168 9 “ThePeopleRenewed”in Twentieth-CenturyChina 203 Epilogue 224 Notes 235 WorksCited 241 Index 245.
Preface The nature of true leadership; its relation to learning, vir- tue,andeducationinhumangovernance;theroleinsoci- ety of what today is often called the public intellectual— these have been questions for humankind in some form since the dawn of history and civilization. In one voice or another the prophet, the epic poet (once characterized by Mark Van Doren as “The Noble Voice”), and the early phi- losophers have spoken to this, as do the foundation myths of the classical traditions. What are the personal qualities that enable those in power—whether that power is inher- ited, seized by force, or perhaps won by some kind of elec- tion—to claim authority over others, or to gain their com- pliance with the ways of civilized life, free from violence, coercion,ordeception? Herewerecognizetheissuemostbroadlyasoneofcivil- ity, even if not in the form of a “civil society” as modern scholarshavewrittenaboutit.Thelatterconceptdoeshave relevancetohoworganizedlifecanbesustainedintheface of the unprecedented violence that dominates so much of contemporary life. Indeed, coping with institutionalized violence and sophisticated technologies requires systemic.
1 Confucius’ Noble Person When a leading Japanese proponent of liberal democracy, Yoshino SakuzÇ, discussed the prospect for constitutional government in Japan in 1916, he prefaced his analysis of constitutional structures by pointing to the difference be- tween formal enactments and the political culture needed tosustainthem: Whetherornotconstitutionalgovernmentwillworkwellis partlyamatterofstructureandprocedures,butitisalsoa questionofthegenerallevelofthepeoples’knowledgeand virtue. . . . The fundamental prerequisite for perfecting constitutional government . . . is the cultivation of knowl- edgeandvirtueamongthegeneralityofthepeople.(Itis extremelyimportantnottorelyonpoliticiansalone,butto make use of the cooperative efforts of educators, religious leaders,andthinkersinallareasofsociety.) The United States and Mexico illustrate how two coun- tries with equally well-developed forms of constitutional governmentmaybeatoppositeendsofthescaleinitsoper- ationasaresultofthedifferentlevelsofknowledgeandvir- tueallowedbytheirpeoples.1.
2 The Noble Paths of Buddha and Rama India of the so-called Axial Age had two comparable if also competing examples of an ideal of nobility, originally iden- tiﬁed with a leadership elite, but later generalized, to a greater or lesser degree, as a value appropriate to all. To illustrate the point in relation to Buddhism I shall draw on the Dhammapada, a standard work of the Theravada Buddhist tradition, and in regard to Hinduism, the epic bce?) Ramayana in the classic version of Valmiki (7th c. .
3 Buddhist Spirituality and Chinese Civility At this point we turn back to the “nobility” of the Buddha, andaskwhether,asBuddhismspreadtotheEast,itdidnot encounter similar questions as to how its “nobility of the spirit,”itsworld-transcendingpursuitofNirvana,wouldre- latetotheindigenouscivilitiesofEastAsia.
4 ShÃtoku’s Constitution and the Civil Order in Early Japan Thekeyﬁgureintheliteraldeﬁning,ifnottheactualshap- ing, of the civilizational issues in early Japan of the sixth and seventh centuries is generally considered to be Prince ShÇtoku(573–621),actingasRegentonbehalfofEmpress Suiko (592–628). ShÇtoku was both a devout student of Buddhism as brought to Japan by Korean missionaries in the late sixth or early seventh century, and a statesman who promulgated a charter of civil government known as the Seventeen Article Constitution. This is an extraordi- nary combination of religious and political concerns and analtogetherremarkabledocument.Thoughlackingmany features of a modern constitution, as a statement of basic principles of governance, his Seventeen Articles are un- precedented for their time and unique in East Asian his- tory.
5 Chrysanthemum and Sword Revisited To say that Confucianism was little to be seen in public does not mean that it disappeared altogether from Japa- nese ofﬁcial life in the Heian era (794–1185). Confucian textsremainedaformalpartoftheChinesestudiesthated- ucatedJapanesewereexpectedtobeconversantwith,and they were included in the program of the Court Academy (DaigakuryÇ),thoughnotasanecessaryoressentialquali- ﬁcation for a meritocratic ofﬁcialdom, but as a cultured adornmentofthecourtaristocracy,probablylessimportant for the Heian gentleman than was the ability to compose goodChinesepoetry.
6 The New Leadership and Civil Society in Song China When Hayashi Razan responded to Tokugawa Ieyasu’s questionwhether“legitimacy”amountedtoanythingmore than simple expediency, Razan spoke of moral values— right and wrong—and human moral relations as grounded in the very structure and processes of Heaven-and-Earth, corresponding to the natural order as seen in the succes- sion of the seasons. For this Razan was drawing on a new Confucian metaphysics and cosmology known to the Japa- nese by this time as “Song Learning,” identifying it as a product of a long development in and out of Song period China(907–1126).
7 Civil and Military in Tokugawa Japan In Japan, even with the wide spread of Neo-Confucian- ism in the Tokugawa period, the community compact had muchlesssuccessasanorganizationthaninKorea—afail- urethathasbeenexplainedasowingtoanentrenchedsys- tem of local organization and strong, hierarchical feudal relations in Japan.1 Nevertheless the Six Precepts had a history of their own, quite relevant to the problem of how Zhu Xi’s concepts of civil morality fared in different sys- temiccontextsinEastAsia.Thestorystarts,however,with whatmayseemtobeahistoricalaccident.
8 Citizen and Subject in Modern Japan WiththeMeijiRestorationof1868andthecommitmentto build a modern state, a new idea of citizenship took hold, and as Fukuzawa Yukichi proposed, it was to be imple- mented directly by and in the service of a state claiming to advance the public good, according to the standards of modern civilization and a new civility. The question then arose of how the new citizenship, as participating in the newpoliticalorder,wouldrelatetoearlierconceptsoflead- ership, possibly drawing on the feudal code of the samurai elite or the Neo-Confucian civil learning of the “noble man,”ortoconceptsofcivilityasfoundonthelocallevelin the popular morality propagated by Neo-Confucian teach- ersintheseventeenthandeighteenthcentury.