Nikola Tesla From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Nikola Tesla (Serbian Cyrillic: Никола Тесла; 10 Nikola Tesla July 1856 – 7 January 1943) was a Serbian American  inventor, electrical engineer, mechanical engineer, physicist, and futurist best known for his contributions to the design of the modern alternating current (AC) electricity supply system. Tesla gained experience in telephony and electrical engineering before immigrating to the United States in 1884 to work for Thomas Edison in New York City.
and Measures named the SI unit of magnetic flux Tesla coil density the tesla in his honor. Tesla has Radio remote control vehicle experienced a resurgence in interest in popular culture (torpedo) since the 1990s. Significant awards Contents Signature 1 Early years (1856–1885) 1.1 Working for Edison 2 Middle years (1886–1899) 2.1 AC and the induction motor 2.2 War of Currents 2.3 "Tesla Polyphase System" 2.4 Niagara and patents 2.5 American citizenship 2.6 X-ray experimentation 2.7 Radio 2.8 Colorado Springs 3 Wardenclyffe years (1900–1917) 4 Nobel Prize rumors 5 Later years (1918–1943) 5.1 Directed-energy weapon 6 Death 6.1 Estate 7 Patents 8 Personal life 8.1 Appearance 8.2 Eidetic memory 8.3 Sleep habits 8.4 Relationships 8.5 On experimental and theoretical physics 8.6 On society 8.7 On religion 9 Literary works 10 Legacy and honors 10.1 Things named after Tesla 10.1.1 Awards 10.1.2 Enterprises and organizations 10.1.3 Holidays and events 10.1.4 Measures 10.1.5 Places 10.2 Plaques and memorials 11 See also 12 References 12.1 Notes 12.2 Sources 13 Further reading 14 External links.
Early years (1856–1885) Nikola Tesla was born on 10 July [O.S. 28 June] 1856 into a Serb family in the village of Smiljan, Austrian Empire (modern-day Croatia). His father, Milutin Tesla, was an Orthodox priest. Tesla's mother, Đuka Tesla (née Mandić), whose father was also an Orthodox priest,:10 had a Rebuilt, Tesla's house (parish hall) in Smiljan, Croatia, where he was born, talent for making home craft and the rebuilt church, where his tools, mechanical appliances, and father served. During the Yugoslav the ability to memorize Serbian Wars, several of the buildings were epic poems. Đuka had never severely damaged by fire. They were received a formal education.
In 1874, Tesla evaded being drafted into the Austro-Hungarian Army in Smiljan by running away to Tomingaj, near Gračac. There, he explored the mountains in hunter's garb. Tesla said that this contact with nature made him stronger, both physically and mentally. He read many books while in Tomingaj, and later said that Mark Twain's works had helped him to miraculously recover from his earlier illness. In 1875, Tesla enrolled at Austrian Polytechnic in Graz, Austria, on a Military Frontier scholarship. During his first year, Tesla never missed a lecture, earned the highest grades possible, passed nine exams (nearly twice as many required), started a Serbian culture club, and even received a letter of commendation from the dean of the technical faculty to his father, which stated, "Your son is a star of first rank." Tesla claimed that he worked from 3 a.m. to 11 p.m., no Nikola Tesla's father Milutin, Orthodox priest in Sundays or holidays excepted. He was "mortified when [his] father the village of Smiljan made light of [those] hard won honors." After his father's death in 1879,  Tesla found a package of letters from his professors to his father, warning that unless he were removed from the school, Tesla would be killed through overwork. During his second year, Tesla came into conflict with Professor Poeschl over the Gramme dynamo, when Tesla suggested that commutators weren't necessary. At the end of his second year, Tesla lost his scholarship and became addicted to gambling. During his third year, Tesla gambled away his allowance and his tuition money, later gambling back his initial losses and returning the balance to his family. Tesla said that he "conquered [his] passion then and there," but later he was known to play billiards in the US. When exam time came, Tesla was unprepared and asked for an extension to study, but was denied. He never graduated from the university and did not receive grades for the last semester.
In 1881, Tesla moved to Budapest to work under Ferenc Puskás at a telegraph company, the Budapest Telephone Exchange. Upon arrival, Tesla realized that the company, then under construction, was not functional, so he worked as a draftsman in the Central Telegraph Office instead. Within a few months, the Budapest Telephone Exchange became functional and Tesla was allocated the chief electrician position. During his employment, Tesla made many improvements to the Central Station equipment and claimed to have perfected a telephone repeater or amplifier, which was never patented nor publicly described. Working for Edison In 1882, Tesla began working for the Continental Edison Company in Tesla aged 23, c. 1879 France, designing and making improvements to electrical equipment. In June 1884, he relocated to New York City:57–60 where he was hired by Thomas Edison to work at his Edison Machine Works on Manhattan's lower east side. Tesla's work for Edison began with simple electrical engineering and quickly progressed to solving more difficult problems. Tesla was offered the task of completely redesigning the Edison Company's direct current generators. In 1885, he said that he could redesign Edison's inefficient motor and generators, making an improvement in both service and economy. According to Tesla, Edison remarked, "There's fifty thousand dollars in it for you—if you can do it.":54–57 :64 This has been noted as an odd statement from an Edison whose company was stingy with pay and who did not have that sort of cash on hand. After months of work, Tesla fulfilled the task and inquired about payment. Edison, saying that he was only joking, replied, "Tesla, you don't understand our American humor.":64  Instead, Edison offered a US$10 a week raise over Tesla's US$18 per week salary; Tesla refused the offer and immediately resigned. Middle years (1886–1899) After leaving Edison's company Tesla partnered with two businessmen in 1886, Robert Lane and Benjamin Vale, who agreed to finance an electric lighting company in Tesla's name, Tesla Electric Light & Manufacturing. The company installed electrical arc light based illumination systems designed by Tesla and also had designs for dynamo electric machine commutators, the first patents issued to Tesla in the US. The investors showed little interest in Tesla's ideas for new types of motors and electrical transmission equipment and also seemed to think it was better to develop an electrical utility than invent new systems.
In late 1886 Tesla met Alfred S. Brown, a Western Union superintendent, and New York attorney Charles F. Peck. The two men were experienced in setting up companies and promoting inventions and patents for financial gain. Based on Tesla's patents and other ideas they agreed to back him financially and handle his patents. Together in April 1887 they formed the Tesla Electric Company with an agreement that profits from generated patents would go 1/3 to Tesla, 1/3 to Peck and Brown, and 1/3 to fund development. They set up a laboratory for Tesla at 89 Liberty Street in Manhattan where he worked on improving and developing new types of electric motors, generators and other devices.
Tesla's demonstration of his induction motor and Westinghouse's subsequent licensing of the patent, both in 1888, put Tesla firmly on the "AC" side of the so-called "War of Currents," an electrical distribution battle being waged between Thomas Edison and George Westinghouse that had been simmering since Westinghouse's first AC system in 1886 and had reached the point of all out warfare by 1888.  This started out as a competition between rival lighting systems with Edison holding all the patents for DC and the incandescent light and Westinghouse using his own patented AC system to power arc lights as well as incandescent lamps of a slightly different design to get around the Edison patent. The acquisition of a feasible AC motor gave Westinghouse a key patent in building a completely integrated AC system, but the financial strain of buying up patents and hiring the engineers needed to build it meant development of Tesla's motor had to Nikola Tesla's AC dynamo- be put on hold for a while. The competition resulted in Edison electric machine (AC Machine Works pursuing AC development in 1890 and by 1892 Thomas Electric generator) in an Edison was no longer in control of his own company, which was 1888 U.S. Patent 390,721 consolidated into the conglomerate General Electric and converting to an (https://www.google.com/pat AC delivery system at that point.
almost any part of the room, were made luminous. These were the same experiments and the same apparatus shown by Tesla in London about two years previous, "where they produced so much wonder and astonishment". Tesla also explained the principles of the rotating magnetic field in an induction motor by demonstrating how to make a copper egg stand on end using a device he constructed known as the Egg of Columbus.
Starting in 1894, Tesla began investigating what he referred to as radiant energy of "invisible" kinds after he had noticed damaged film in his laboratory in previous experiments (later identified as "Roentgen rays" or "X-Rays"). His early experiments were with Crookes tubes, a cold cathode electrical discharge tube.
In 1898, Tesla demonstrated a radio- controlled boat—which he dubbed "teleautomaton"—to the public during an electrical exhibition at Madison Square Garden. The crowd that witnessed the demonstration made outrageous claims about the workings of the boat, such as magic, telepathy, and being piloted by a trained monkey hidden inside. Tesla Wireless transmission of power and In 1898, Tesla tried to sell his idea to the U.S. military as energy demonstration during his 1891 demonstrated a a type of radio-controlled torpedo, but they lecture on high frequency and radio-controlled showed little interest. Remote radio potential boat (U.S. Patent control remained a novelty until World 613,809 War I and afterward, when a number of countries used it in military programs. (https://www.goog Tesla took the opportunity to further demonstrate "Teleautomatics" in an address le.com/patents/US to a meeting of the Commercial Club in Chicago, whilst he was travelling to 613809) —Method Colorado Springs, on 13 May 1899. of an Apparatus for Controlling In 1900, Tesla was granted patents for a "system of transmitting electrical energy" Mechanism of and "an electrical transmitter." When Guglielmo Marconi made his famous first- Moving Vehicle or ever transatlantic radio transmission in 1901, Tesla quipped that it was done with Vehicles).