Contents Contributors ix Preface e xi Acknowledgments s xv Part I Introduction 1 1 Theoretical Developments in the Cognitive and Constructive Psychotherapies 3 Michael J. Mahoney 2 Changing Conceptions of Cognitive Behavior Modification: Retrospect and Prospect 20 Donald Meichenbaum Part II Cognitive Therapy 27 3 Cognitive Therapy: Past, Present, and Future 29 Aaron T. Beck 4 An Appraisal of Cognitive Therapy 41 Clive J. Robins and Adele M. Hayes Part III Rational-Emotive Therapy 67 5 Reflections on Rational-Emotive Therapy 69 Albert Ellis vii.
Preface Psychotherapy is changing. In today's world, such a statement seems to require little explanation. We live in an age of change. Indeed, most of us are so busy coping with the challenges of modern life that we seldom pause to reflect upon the pace and pervasiveness of change in our lives.
Acknowledgments Needless to say, a project like this one is truly a collaborative effort. I extend my sincere appreciation to each of the authors for their indi- vidual and collective contributions. Together they have raised impor- tant questions about recent developments in the field, and their chap- ters reflect conscientious and self-examing reflection on the practical relevance of cognitive and constructive perspectives. Such questions are the lifeblood of all human inquiry, and such inquiry lies at the very heart of all psychological science and all psychotherapeutic services. I am also grateful to Bill Tucker and Bob Kowkabany of Springer for their invaluable assistance in all phases of this project.
1 Theoretical Developments in the Cognitive Psychotherapies Michael J. Mahoney Written histories are always and necessarily interpretive. Thus, those interested in tracing the development of cognitive psychotherapies are wise to consult the multiple historiographies that have been rendered (Arnkoff & Glass, 1992; Dobson, 1988; Mahoney & Arnkoff, 1978; Vallis, Howes, & Miller, 1991). Allowing for some interpretive license, it seems clear that their heritage can be readily traced to classical philosophers.
2 Changing Conceptions of Cognitive Behavior Modification: Retrospect and Prospect Donald Meichenbaum Since its inception, cognitive behavior modification (CBM) has attempted to integrate the clinical concerns of psychodynamic and systems-oriented psychotherapists with the technology of behavior therapists. CBM has contributed to current integrative efforts in the field of psychotherapy. As in most forms of psychotherapy, CBM was the result of an evolutionary process and was part of a Zeitgeist of what December (1974) called a "cognitive revolution." Cognitive-behavioral therapies derived from a long tradition of se- mantic therapists ranging from Dubois to Kelly, and along the way were influenced by the social learning theories of Rotter, Bandura, Mischel, Kanfer, and others. The influential writings of Albert Ellis, Aaron Beck, and both Arnold and Richard Lazarus highlighted the role of cognitive and affective processes in psychopathology and in the behavior change process.
3 Cognitive Therapy: Past, Present, and Future Aaron T. Beck Can a fledgling psychotherapy challenge the giants in the field—psycho- analysis and behavior therapy? (Beck, 1976, p. 333) In the 16 years since I raised that question, substantial information has accumulated to address it. To make a judgment, I proposed a set of standards for evaluating a system of psychotherapy. A condensed ver- sion is as follows: (a) there should be empirical evidence to support the principles underlying the therapy, which should articulate with the techniques; and (b) the efficacy of the treatment should have empirical support (Beck, 1976, p. 308). In retrospect, I added that the system should the include "a tenable theory of personality and of the process of change" (Beck, 199la, p. 192). Although there have been many defini- tions of cognitive therapy, I have been most satisfied with the notion that cognitive therapy is best viewed as the application of the cognitive model of a particular disorder with the use of a variety of techniques designed to modify the dysfunctional beliefs and faulty information processing characteristic of each disorder. The theory of personality and psychopathology has been described in a number of publications (e.g., see Beck & Weishaar, 1989). In this review, I will focus primarily on the reports regarding the efficacy of cognitive therapy in various disorders.
4 An Appraisal of Cognitive Therapy CliveJ. Robins and Adele M. Hayes Because other chapters in this volume deal with therapy approaches that broadly could be termed cognitive, we have limited our appraisal to that form of cognitive therapy (CT) developed by Aaron T. Beck and his colleagues and to recent developments that have a fairly direct histori- cal lineage to this approach. We focus on the theory and practice of CT; the evidence regarding cognitive models of psychopathology is reviewed elsewhere (Haaga, Dyck, & Ernst, 1991; Robins & Hayes, in press), and the outcome literatures on CT are evaluated in other articles in this section.