V Contents Preface XIII KARL MARX AND FREDERICK ENGELS WORKS November 1867-mid-July 1870 1. K. Marx. The Fenian Prisoners at Manchester and the Interna tional Working Men's Association 3 2. K. Marx. The Position of the International on Prussian Protec tionist Tariffs 5 3. K. Marx. Resolution on Changing the Place of the Internation al's Congress in 1868 6 4. K. Marx. Resolution of the General Council on Félix Pyat's Provocative Behaviour 7 5. K. Marx. Declaration of the General Council Concerning the British Government's Attitude Towards Tsarist Russia 8 6. K. Marx. Draft Resolution on the Consequences of Using Machinery under Capitalism Proposed by the General Council to the Brussels Congress 9 7. K. Marx. To the President and Executive Committee of the General Association of German Workers 10 8. K. Marx. Draft Resolution on the Reduction of the Working Day Proposed by the General Council to the Brussels Congress 11 9. K. Marx. The Fourth Annual Report of the General Council of the International Working Men's Association 12 10. F. Engels. To the Directorate of the Schiller Institute 18 .
XIII Preface Volume 21 of the Collected Works of Karl Marx and Frederick Engels contains works dating from November 1867 to mid-July 1870, most of them relating to the activity of the First International—documents, reports, articles, statements, and out lines. Much space is devoted to works, speeches, and preparatory materials on the Irish question. The period dealt with in this volume saw a sharpening of the economic and social conflicts in Europe and the United States of America, mass working-class actions, an intensification of the Irish national liberation struggle, a deepening of the crisis of Louis Bonaparte's Second Empire, and a mounting threat of war in Europe. This volume, like volume 20, reflects Marx's diverse activity in the First International and the efforts of its General Council, led by him, to strengthen the unity of the working class and cultivate the spirit of proletarian internationalism and class consciousness in it. The First International (the International Working Men's Association—IWMA) had constituted itself by then, and the time had come for its ideological and organisational consolidation. Its federations and sections had become active in many European countries and in the United States. In Britain its base consisted of the trade unions, which numbered tens of thousands of workers; and in other countries unions were also beginning to take their place as the first class organisations of the proletariat. The International Working Men's Association, Engels wrote in 1869, had already shown in more than one place in Europe that it was a force the ruling classes were compelled to reckon with (see this volume, p. 64). .
3 Karl Marx THE FENIAN PRISONERS AT MANCHESTER AND THE INTERNATIONAL WORKING MEN'S ASSOCIATION1 At a special meeting of the General Council of the I.W.A. held at the office 16, Castle Street, East, W., on Wednesday evening 3 the following memorial was adopted: "Memorial of the General Council of the International Working Men's Association. "To the Right Hon. Gathorne-Hardy, her Majesty's Secretary of State. "The memorial of the undersigned, representing working men's associations in all parts of Europe, showeth: "That the execution of the Irish prisoners condemned to death at Manchester will greatly impair the moral influence of England upon the European Continent. The Execution of the four prisonersb resting upon the same evidence and the same verdict which, by the free pardon of Maguire, have been officially declared, the one false, the other erroneous, will bear the stamp not of a judicial act, but of political revenge. But even if the verdict of the Manchester jury and the evidence it rests upon had not been tainted by the British Government itself, the latter would now have to choose between the blood-handed practices of old Europe and the magnanimous humanity of the young Transatlan tic Republic.2 "The commutation of the sentence for which we pray will be an act not only of justice, but of political wisdom. a November 20, 1867.— JEd. b Edward Condon, Michael Larkin, William Philip Allen, Michael O'Brien.— Ed. .
5 Karl Marx [THE POSITION OF THE INTERNATIONAL ON PRUSSIAN PROTECTIONIST TARIFFS]3 The trades unions established in Germany by the agency and with the assistance of the International Working Men's Association have furnished the chiefs of the iron trade in the Rhenish province, with an argument against the Prussian Government with regard to a reduction of the import duties on foreign iron. The Chamber of Commerce of Elberfeld and Barmen is of opinion that a reduction of the import duties on iron will completely ruin the Prussian iron masters. The English capitalists maintain that they must reduce the wages of their workmen to be able to cope with the foreigners. The German iron masters demand the continuance of protection against the English to save themselves from utter ruin; yet the wages received by the Prussian workmen are less than half what the British workman receives, and the hours of labour are more. In its report of April 14th to the Government, the Chamber of Commerce statçs: "The iron trade of Germany once prostrate a remedy is impossible. Much capital will then be lost, and thousands of working men deprived of the means of subsistence—a matter that would be the more critical, as the labour question becomes more and more serious, and the International Working Men's Association assumes a more and more active and menacing attitude." This statement proves that the Association has not laboured in vain. The capitalists demand a public inquiry into the present state of the Prussian iron trade. The workmen insist that the inquiry shall include an investigation of the condition of the workpeople employed in the trade. Written between May 5 and 12, 1868 Reproduced from the newspaper First published in The Bee-Hive News paper, No. 344, May 16, 1868 .
6 Karl Marx [RESOLUTION ON CHANGING THE PLACE OF THE INTERNATIONAL'S CONGRESS IN 1868] 4 1. Considering, that the Belgian Parliament has just prolon gated for three years the law by which every foreigner may be expelled [from] the country by the Belgian executive govern ment5; 2. that the dignity of the I. W. Association is incompatible with the meeting of the Congress at a place where they would be at the mercy of the local police; 3. that Article 3 of the Rules of the I.W.A.a provides that the General Council may, in case of need, change the place of meeting of the Congress; the General Council resolves that the Congress of the I.W.A. do assemble in London on the 5th of September, 1868. Introduced at the General Council meet- Reproduced from the Minute ing of June 2, 1868 Book of the General Council First published in The Bee-Hive News paper, No. 347, June 6, 1868 a Rules of the International Working Men's Association. Founded September 28th, 1864, London , p. 4.— Ed. .
7 Karl Marx [RESOLUTION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL ON FÉLIX PYAT'S PROVOCATIVE BEHAVIOUR]6 Resolved. That the General Council of the I.W.A. repudiates all responsibility for the address3 delivered at the public meeting in Cleveland Hall by Félix Pyat, who is in no way connected with the Association. Adopted by the General Council on Reproduced from the Minute July 7, 1868 Book of the General Council First published in French in La Liberté, No. 55, July 12, 1868 a L'Espiègle, No. 25, July 5, 1868.— Ed. .
Karl Marx [DECLARATION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL CONCERNING THE BRITISH GOVERNMENT'S ATTITUDE TOWARDS TSARIST RUSSIA]7 The Council of the I. W. Association denounces the last manifestation of the subserviency to Russia of the British Government by suppressing the adjective "Polish" before the word "refugees" in the budget one month after the Russian Government had by an ukase3 suppressed the name of Poland. Adopted by the General Council on Reproduced from the Minute July 14, 1868 Book of the General Council First published in The Bee-Hive, No. 352, July 18, 1868 a Marx means Alexander II's ukase of February 29, 1868 abolishing the Government Commission for Home Affairs in the Kingdom of Poland and the additional rules to the Regulations on the Gubernia and Uyezd Administration in the Gubernias in the Kingdom of Poland approved by His Majesty on December 19 (31), 1866.— Ed. .
9 Karl Marx [DRAFT RESOLUTION ON THE CONSEQUENCES OF USING MACHINERY UNDER CAPITALISM PROPOSED BY THE GENERAL COUNCIL TO THE BRUSSELS CONGRESS]8 Resolved: that on the one side machinery has proved a most powerful instrument of despotism and extortion in the hands of the capitalist class; that on the other side the development of machinery creates the material conditions necessary for the superseding of the wages- system by a truly social system of production. Adopted by the General Council on Reproduced from the Minute August 11, 1868 Book of the General Council First published in French in a special supplement to Le Peuple Belge, No. 38, September 11, 1868 .
10 Karl Marx TO THE PRESIDENT AND EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE OF THE GENERAL ASSOCIATION OF GERMAN WORKERS 9 London, August 18, 1868 In order to conclude preparations for the Brussels Congress a meeting of the Executive Committee of the General Council of the International Working Men's AssociationI0 has been called for August 22, and a plenary session of the General Council for August 25. As I have been given the task of making reports on both days I find that I am unable to accept the invitation,3 by which I am greatly honoured, to attend the Congress of the General Association of German Workers in Hamburg. I am happy to see that the programme of your Congress0 lays down those points from which, in fact, any serious workers' movement must proceed: agitation for complete political freedom, regulation of the working day, and systematic international cooperation of the working class in the great, historical task which it has to accomplish for the whole of society. Good luck in your work! With democratic greetings Karl Marx First published in Der Social-Demokrat, Printed according to the news- No. 100, August 28, 1868 paper Published in English for the first time a J. B. Schweitzer, "An Herrn Carl Marx in London. Berlin, 6. Juli 1868", Der Social-Demokrat, No. 95, August 14, 1868.— Ed. b J. B. Schweitzer, "An die Mitglieder des Allgemeinen deutschen Arbeiter- Vereins", Der Social-Demokrat, No. 80, July 10, 1868.— Ed. .
11 Karl Marx [DRAFT RESOLUTION ON THE REDUCTION OF THE WORKING DAY PROPOSED BY THE GENERAL COUNCIL TO THE BRUSSELS CONGRESS]11 A resolution having been passed unanimously by the Congress of Geneva 1866 to this effect: "That the legal limitation of the working day is a preliminary condition indispensable for the ulterior social improvements,"3 the Council is of opinion that the time is now arrived when practical effect should be given to that resolution and that it has become the duty of all the branches to agitate that question practically in the different countries where the International Working Men's Association is established. Adopted by the General Council on Reproduced from the Minute August 25, 1868 Book of the General Council First published in The Bee-Hive, No. 359, August 29, 1868 a The International Working Men's Association. Resolutions of the Congress of Geneva, 1866, and the Congress of Brussels, 1868, London , pp. 4-5.— Ed. .