ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The editors wish to express their gratitude to all the Mars One candi- dates whose quotes have been used in these pages, including the follow- ing, who contributed thoughts to “Age and Aging on Mars”: Dan Carey, Ethan Dederick, Yuri Rafael Lopez Farias, Reginald Foulds, Laurel Helene Kaye, Mead McCormick, Dianne McGrath, Elaheh Nouri, Sue Ann Pien, Jaymee Orillosa Del Rosario, Etsuko Shimabukuro, Dr. Bhupendra Singh, Anastasiya Stepanova, and Kay Radzik Warren. We regret that time did not allow us to contact more. Interviews were conducted by Mars One Exchange writer Vincent Hyman, who also wrote up the interview results for this chapter.
CONTENTS Foreword xiii Introduction xvii Technical and Medical Skills, Health and Fitness 3 What technical skills will the crew need to survive and ultimately thrive on Mars? 9 Improvisation and Exploration Mason Peck What medical skills will the crew need to survive and ultimately thrive on Mars? 23 Medical Skills for an Interplanetary Trip Thais RussoMano What health and fitness skills will the crew need to survive and ultimately thrive on Mars? 37 Human Health and Performance for Mars Missions JaMie R. Guined.
FOREWORD A young man appeared in my office. Yes, he had made an appointment with my secretary to meet me. He had heard about my interest in futuristic applications of science and science fiction. He, and a few companions, had some rather bold ideas that he wanted to unfold for me, and he wanted to learn how I would react. If you are in a field of science like mine, people with “new ideas” show up all the time. Those ideas are usually “new” and “original” indeed, but completely out of touch with the real world. Usually, they are based on hopelessly ill-informed perceptions of what real science and technology are about, and there is not much I can do for such people other than advise them to learn much more about what profes- sionals have to say regarding the topics they are so thrilled about before bothering me again.
INTRODUCTION We have been orbiting humans around Earth for more than half a century. We have landed on the moon and sent spacecraft to explore various near and distant planetary objects in our solar sys- tem. The next logical place for humanity’s great adventure is Mars. It’s the only planet we know of with an abundance of a key life-critical substance—water—and although located much farther away from Earth than our moon, it is close enough for humans to make the trip, even with our current technology. Mars One is a nonprofit organization, based in the Netherlands and international in scope, whose goal is to establish a permanent human settlement on Mars. Why do this? Because it is the next giant leap forward for humankind; a stepping-stone for the human race on its unyielding quest to explore the universe. Human settlement on Mars will aid our understanding of the origins of the solar system, the origins of life, and our place in the cosmos. Sending a manned mission to Mars is a fantastic adventure. Imagine the incredible feeling of being the first human in history to step out of the capsule and leave your footprint on the surface of Mars. This feel- ing of amazement will be experienced by not only the astronaut but also by his or her audience: all those watching from back home. After all, many of those who observed Neil Armstrong land on the moon so many years ago still remember the details—where they were, who they were with, and how they felt when it happened. This will be our moment, in 2027. Imagine, too, something more—what it would be like to live on another planet, millions of miles from Earth, and look up xvii.
What technical skills will the crew need to survive and ultimately thrive on Mars? IMPROVISATION AND EXPLORATION M P ason eck Explorers of Mars will need many technical skills, not to mention training on how to operate technologies chosen to take them to the surface of that world and keep them alive there. Human explo- ration of Mars will require people adept at handling electrical and electronic systems, including generators, computers, communications systems and sensors; people who can repair life support systems and keep the air breathable, the water drinkable, and temperature comfort- able; people who can survey sites and construct the habitats in which the explorers will live out the bulk of their lives. But there is one technical skill that is more important than any other and that we can predict will be needed in abundance even with- out knowing all of the technical requirements of the mission: the ability to improvise.
What medical skills will the crew need to survive and ultimately thrive on Mars? MEDICAL SKILLS FOR AN INTERPLANETARY TRIP The Hostile Environments of Space and the Planet Mars T R hais ussoMano Imagine that you and your colleague have spent the last hour collecting small rock samples and are now on your way back to basecamp. You look out over the bleak and rugged terrain of Mars ahead of you, pockmarked with craters caused by the impact of meteors over thousands of years. You wipe your gloved hand over your helmet visor to remove its accumulated thin layer of red dust and look forward to being able to remove the restricting suit that is now feeling a little claus- trophobic. Suddenly, you hear a cry of pain from somewhere behind you. Turning around, you see your colleague lying awkwardly on the ground, clutching at his leg with a foot that looks sickeningly splayed at 23.
What health and fitness skills will the crew need to survive and ultimately thrive on Mars? HUMAN HEALTH AND PERFORMANCE FOR MARS MISSIONS J R. G aMie uined Decades of robotic exploration have taught us much of what we need to know about how to get equipment from the surface of Earth to the surface of Mars, but achieving the goal of putting “boots on Mars” will be a monumental undertaking fraught with risk and uncer- tainty. Of all the challenges that must be managed, mitigated, and over- come to enable mankind to turn science fiction into science fact, the “human-in-the-loop” is perhaps the most challenging of them all. In addition to the physiological, psychological, and engineering obstacles that must be considered and overcome to achieve this lofty goal, there are an equal number of accompanying ethical considerations that must also be taken into account.