Markets in Historical Contexts IdeasandPoliticsintheModernWorld Markets in Historical Contexts is the result of a dialogue between his- toriansandsocialscientiststhinkingaboutmarketsinmodernsociety.
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Contents Acknowledgements page vii Listofcontributors viii 1 Marketsinhistoricalcontexts:ideas,practicesand governance 1 2 Improvingjustice:communitiesofnormsintheGreat Transformation 25 3 ThepoliticsofpoliticaleconomyinFrancefrom RousseautoConstant 46 4 Toriesandmarkets:Britain1800–1850 70 5 GuildtheoryandguildorganizationinFranceand Germanyduringthenineteenthcentury 90 - 6 Thinkinggreen,nineteenth-centurystyle:JohnStuart MillandJohnRuskin 105 7 To¨nnieson‘community’and‘civilsociety’:clarifying somecross-currentsinpost-Marxianpoliticalthought 129 8 Germanhistoricism,progressivesocialthought,and theinterventioniststateintheUnitedStatessince the1880s 145 . v.
Acknowledgements Markets in Historical Contexts is the result of a dialogue between histori- ansandsocialscientiststhinkingaboutmarketsinmodernsociety.How shouldweapproachmarketsatthebeginningofthetwenty-ﬁrstcentury? What alternative ways of thinking about markets can we recover from thepast?Contributorswereaskedtoexplorethechangingmeaningand socialcontingencyofmarketsintheirparticularsubjectarea.
Contributors teaches political theory at the University of California at Berkeley. He is the author of The Logic of the History of Ideas, and coauthor(withRodRhodes)ofInterpretingBritishGovernance.
1 Markets in historical contexts: ideas, practices and governance Mark Bevir and Frank Trentmann Social life requires co-ordination between individual actions. Co- ordination can arise intentionally or unintentionally and can take dif- ferentforms.Formuchofthepreviouscentury,societiesacrosstheglobe valorized two of forms of co-ordination – the market and state plan- ning.Alltoooftenthemarketandthestateappearedaspolaropposites.
6 MarkBevirandFrankTrentmann Theturntogovernance Politicalscientists,historiansandtheoristshaveturnedtogovernancefor several overlapping reasons. Political scientists turned to the concept to describechangesinthestate.9Globalization,informationtechnologyand theendofcommunism,theyargued,haveinauguratednewtimes.Socio- economic processes have sped up the pace of change, made ﬂuid what oncewereestablishedboundarieswithinandbetweenorganizations,and increased reciprocal interdependence. The result has been a shift from governmenttogovernanceorahollowingoutofthestate.Inthisview,a newsemi-sovereigntypeofstatehasemergedwhoseauthorityhasbeen eroded internally and externally so that it can act only in conjunction withotherorganizationswithininterdependentnetworks.Hence,atten- tion shifts from the formal institutions of the nation state to processes of governing or steering,10 processes that often occur at the boundary betweenstateandcivilsociety,bothatlocalandtransnationallevels.The resultingliteratureongovernancehasdrawnonthesociologicalliterature that conceptualizes networks as an alternative form of co-ordination to bothhierarchiesandmarkets.11 Contemporarygovernanceischaracter- ized, in this view, by the state operating in and through networks. This expandthetheorytoallowforcontingencyandcontextualizationofjustthatsort.See F.Kratochwil,Rules,Norms,andDecisions(Cambridge,1989);W.Mitchell,‘TheShape of Public Choice to Come: Some Predictions and Advice’, Public Choice 77 (1993), pp. 133–44; C. Vicchaeri, Rationality and Co-ordination (Cambridge, 1993), esp.
10 MarkBevirandFrankTrentmann thecentralstate,suchasidealistideasaboutsocialrelationsorconsumer politicsanchoredincivilsociety.23Therehasalsobeenarecoveryofalter- native visions of modernity and capitalist development, often by groups who had previously been cast as atavistic survivors, such as peasants, gentry,guildsorevangelicalChristians.24Finally,socialandpoliticalhis- torians have built on the rediscovery of ‘republicanism’ by intellectual historians and highlighted the continuing appeal of early modern ideas ofgovernanceandco-ordinationinthemodernperiod.25 Politicalscientists,theoristsandhistorianshavethusturnedtogover- nancefromoverlappingperspectives.Governancerefers,inverygeneral terms,toanaccountofsocialco-ordinationintermsofthewaysinwhich disparateactorswithincivilsocietycometogetherinnetworksbymeans ofdialogueandasharingofresources.Wemightaddthatevenwhenthe resulting forms of co-ordination are a hierarchical state or market, they stillshouldbeexaminedascontingenthistoricalproductsofjustsucha comingtogether.Indeed,howpreciselyanyparticularstateormarketop- erateswilldependonhowitisgovernedbyahostofbeliefs,discourses, practices and institutions. Interest in economic governance thus raises a set of distinctive questions which are taken up by the essays in this volume.Theseessaysexaminetheembeddednessofcapitalisminsocial networks,theroleofpoliticalideasinshapingeconomicgovernance,and thetensionsbetweenideasofsocialco-ordinationandmarkets.