CONTENTS PREFACE vii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS xi CHAPTER 1 An Introduction to Lean but Agile Work and Workforce Planning 1 CHAPTER 2 Optimize the Work 20 CHAPTER 3 Create a Talent Pool for a Lean but Agile Workforce 49 CHAPTER 4 Optimize the Workforce 84 CHAPTER 5 Optimize the Future Work and Workforce 110 CHAPTER 6 Manage and Maintain a Lean but Agile Workforce 127 v.
PREFACE FULL-TIME JOBS may be relics of a bygone age, though worknever seems to go away and, if anything, only becomes more complex. This book is a polemical introduction to a key issue of the day: how to optimize efﬁcient and effective ways to achieve work results in keeping with customer expec- tations while also minimizing the costly expenses involved in maintaining a cadre of full-time workers.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS William J. Rothwell would like to thank his wife, Marcelina, and his daughter, Candice, for just being there for him. Although his son is stuck in the corn- ﬁelds of Illinois, Froilan Perucho is not to be forgotten either for just being the wonderful person he is.
1 C H A P T E R AN INTRODUCTION TO LEAN BUT AGILE WORK AND WORKFORCE PLANNING WHAT IS YOUR ORGANIZATION DOING to hold down employment ex- penses while simultaneously ensuring that work results meet or exceed cus- tomer requirements? How is your organization experimenting with new ways of stafﬁng the work to be done while also achieving the best results? How well is your organization planning systematically for the quantity and quality of people needed to achieve work results in line with customer needs? Read the following vignettes and describe how your organization would meet the challenges you ﬁnd in each. If your organization has ways to solve all of these problems, then perhaps it already has a way to plan com- prehensively and systematically for work results and ways for workers to achieve those results. But if your organization cannot solve most of the prob- lems presented here, then your leaders may want to consider a Lean but Agile approach to planning for the work and workforce.
2 C H A P T E R OPTIMIZE THE WORK TO DELIVER A SUCCESSFUL Lean but Agile program we need to ensure that the foundation of the program is sound. To that end this chapter inves- tigates the need to focus on organizational strategic objectives in both the near and long term. This chapter also investigates the need to understand what work must be completed at an organizational and functional level, in- cluding the critical nature of those functional requirements. It also examines the capability required to deliver the designated work. To ensure that these foundational components are sound, we discuss the need for rigor and re- peatability in the way organizational leaders review and/or audit informa- tion, data, and activity. We also discuss the latest benchmarks to measure against. To frame a Lean but Agile program we begin with a general discus- sion on Outcome-Based Management (OM) and the Outcome Management Framework (OMF) of input, process, output, and outcome that supports it.
3 C H A P T E R CREATE A TALENT POOL FOR A LEAN BUT AGILE WORKFORCE A LEAN WORKFORCE is achieved by selecting people from your organiza- tion talent pool and assigning them to the right work at the right time and the right costs. By workforce, we mean all the individuals who are currently working on assignments for your organization. By organization talent pool, we mean all the individuals whom you have recruited and prequaliﬁed to complete work assignments for today or the future whether they are part of the current workforce or not. Full-time employees are members of the cur- rent workforce and the talent pool. Part-time workers, contractors, consult- ants, interns, and others are also usually part of the mix; some of them may be part of the workforce today, and all are part of the organization talent pool. Some prefer to speak of the talent inventoryinstead of the talent pool, but the term inventory can evoke the image of an interchangeable com- modity. Therefore, we prefer the term pool.
4 C H A P T E R OPTIMIZE THE WORKFORCE SEVERAL QUESTIONS should be considered when the goal is to optimize the workforce. First, what are the most important core competencies(that is, greatest strategic strengths) of the organization? How can stafﬁng enhance that strength to achieve work results that meet or exceed customer or stake- holder requirements? Those are strategic questionsthat will enhance the or- ganization’s effectiveness. Second, once the proﬁle has been prepared of the ideal work product or service, how can an organization’s leaders work back- ward to staff for speciﬁc positions required to do that work? Third, how can the staff skills or competencies required to achieve that ideal work product or service best be acquired on a timely basis? These questions are tactical questionsthat will enhance the organization’s efﬁciency.
5 C H A P T E R OPTIMIZE THE FUTURE WORK AND WORKFORCE THIS CHAPTER DISCUSSES how to deﬁne and document an organiza- tion’s future state to optimize future work and workforce. Speciﬁcally, the chapter addresses how to review existing future state assessments and or- ganizational objectives; optimize future objectives; deﬁne work required to deliver those objectives; scan future trends that affect future work and worker results; determine critical functions/processes/roles for the future state; con- sider alternative workforce approaches; look at the future state organization; conduct value-for-money analysis; integrate objectives, work, and talent management; and conduct ﬁnancial analysis.
6 C H A P T E R MANAGE AND MAINTAIN A LEAN BUT AGILE WORKFORCE WHAT DOES A LEAN BUT AGILE ORGANIZATION look like? At one ex- treme, a few organizations are beginning to morph into loosely afﬁliated, sometimes far-ﬂung networks of contractors that readily increase and de- crease as work demand varies. Organizations like these bear little resem- blance to traditional organizations (see Case Study 1: Acme Consulting). But in most cases, Lean but Agile organizations do not look strikingly different from most other companies. They work progressively and systematically, though, at becoming more Lean but Agile, and in the process they are mak- ing signiﬁcant changes in the way they manage their businesses (see Case Study 2: Brownells on page 138).
7 C H A P T E R BRING LEAN BUT AGILE WORK AND WORKFORCE PLANNING INTO YOUR ORGANIZATION NOW LET’S EXAMINE the key elements for incorporating the planning and implementing of Lean but Agile work and workforce planning into your or- ganization. This chapter focuses on building commitment to Lean but Agile work and workforce planning by making the business case; focusing on out- comes; setting relevant benchmarks; changing management and communi- cation strategies; determining key stakeholders, roles, and accountabilities; establishing strategies; setting timelines; and using technology as a tool for in- troducing Lean but Agile work and workforce planning into your organization.