L S ANGUAGE AND TATE _____________________________ A Theory of the Progress of Civilization _____________________________ Xing Yu University Press of America,® Inc. Lanham · Boulder · New York · Toronto · Plymouth, UK .
Copyright © 2015 by Xing Yu University Press of America,® Inc. 4501 Forbes Boulevard Suite 200 Lanham, Maryland 20706 UPA Acquisitions Department (301) 459-3366 Unit A, Whitacre Mews, 26-34 Stannary Street, London SE11 4AB, United Kingdom All rights reserved Printed in the United States of America British Library Cataloging in Publication Information Available Library of Congress Control Number: 2015945290 ISBN: 978-0-7618-6640-4 (clothbound : alk. paper) eISBN: 978-0-7618-6641-1 The paper used in this publication meets the minimum requirements of American National Standard for Information Sciences—Permanence of Paper for Printed Library Materials, ANSI Z39.48-1992 .
Contents Prologue ix Part One Language and State Communication 1 Introduction 3 Chapter One Humans 5 1. Power Holders 5 2. Businessmen 15 3. Cultural Workers 23 Chapter Two Materials 37 1. Geological Materials 37 2. Materials from Animals 46 3. Materials from Plants 55 Chapter Three Behavior 67 1. Behavior as an Example 67 2. Behavior as an Indication of Identity 76 3. Behavior as a Ceremony 87 Chapter Four Consciousness 97 1. National Consciousness 97 2. Historical Consciousness 107 3. Social or Political Consciousness 116 .
vi Part Two Language and State Organization 131 Introduction 133 Chapter Five Information 135 1. Learning 135 2. Report 143 3. Public Communication 153 Chapter Six Interpretation 165 1. Knowledge 165 2. Value 176 3. Public Affairs 191 Chapter Seven Attitude 203 1. Honor 203 2. Loyalty 216 3. Support or Opposition 232 Chapter Eight Promise 249 1. Contract 249 2. Oath 258 3. Promises Made to and by the Masses 272 Chapter Nine Command 285 1. Naked Command 285 2. Systematic Imperative 294 3. Law Based on Common Interest 304 Part Three Language and State Rationality 317 Introduction 319 Chapter Ten Freedom 321 1. Speech 321 2. Thought 330 3. Religious Belief 341 Chapter Eleven Equality 355 1. Book 355 2. Code or Common Law 367 3. Ballot 378 Chapter Twelve Peace 389 .
v i i 1. Social Exchange 389 2. Constitutional Arrangement 398 3. Ruling in Turn 409 Chapter Thirteen Democracy 421 1. Demonstration 421 2. Poll 431 3. Election and Referendum 439 Chapter Fourteen Justice 453 1. Appointment 453 2. Procedure 462 3. Trial 471 Conclusion 483 Epilogue 501 Acknowledgements 519 Bibliography 523 Index 529 About the Author 535 .
Prologue This monograph is a study of the correlation between language and state. It is intended to study the fundamental role played by language first and then to study how language provides a condition for the genesis and growth of the state. Language is considered a basis for the growth of the state. Language, therefore, is also considered a basic element of the evolution of human community from the primitive society to the civil society. This is because the commencement of using language, be it spoken or written, has no other sociological significance but that for the beginning of a long evolution from the tribe to the state. The reason for me to hold this view is that after the dissolution of tribes or commu- nal families, men become isolated individuals outside their core families charac- teristic of monogamy. Under these circumstances, what connects all is language. Thus the state is to language what the tribe is to kinship. The state is a creation of language. That is, when humans are in the tribes, they originally perform their mutual communication by way of their behaviors. For example, they smile or wave their hands to communicate with each other. They may even dance to communicate with each other. Behavior is the original medium used in commu- nication. As behavior is the medium used in the communication of short dis- tance or short-range, such way of communication dictates the small scale of the community. Men are connected with each other by kinship. The use of language is a revolution. After the invention of language, men are enabled to develop var- ious media. The distance or range of their mutual communication is extended. For example, spoken communication and written communication extend the distance of communication. When spoken communication is performed, men function as media in the related process of communication because human chain linguistic communication is performed. When written communication is per- formed, materials such as stone, clay, papyrus, parchment and paper are used as media. The time of communication is extended and the space of communication is expanded. Men then perform long time and large space communication. Their community grows large, leading to the formation of the state and the dissolution of the tribe formed because of kinship. Thus, the interpretation of the role played by language in the formation and growth of the state should be an attempt of .