BOARD OF ADVISORS Jacob F.Ade Ajayi Professor Emeritus, Department of History University of Ibadan, Nigeria David M.Anderson St. Antony’s College, University of Oxford, England Guy Arnold Writer and lecturer, London, England A.Adu Boahen Professor Emeritus, Department of History University of Ghana Philip L.Bonner Department of History University of Witwatersrand, Republic of South Africa Michael Brett Department of History School of Oriental and African Studies, London, England Catherine Coquery-Vidrovitch Laboratoire Sociétés en development dans l’espace et les temps Université de Paris VII-Denis Diderot, France John Fage† Centre for West African Studies, University of Birmingham Toyin Falola Department of History University of Texas, Austin Richard Gray Emeritus, University of London Mark Horton Department of Archaeology University of Bristol, England David Kiyaga-Mulindwa .
Published in 2005 by Fitzroy Dearborn Taylor & Francis Group 270 Madison Avenue New York, NY 10016 Copyright © 2005 by Taylor & Francis Group, a Division of T&F Informa. Fitzroy Dearborn is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group. This edition published in the Taylor & Francis e-Library, 2005. “ To purchase your own copy of this or any of Taylor & Francis or Routledge’s collection of thousands of eBooks please go to http://www.ebookstore.tandf.co.uk/.” All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilized in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers. 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Encyclopedia of African history/Kevin Shillington, editor. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 1-57958-245-1 (alk. paper) 1. Africa— History—Encyclopedias. I. Shillington, Kevin. DT20.E53 2004 960’.03—dc22 2004016779 ISBN 0-203-48386-3 Master e-book ISBN ISBN 0-203-61947-1 (Adobe eReader Format) ISBN 1-57958-245-1 (Print Edition) .
LIST OF ENTRIES A-Z (with chronological sublistings within nation/group categories) VOLUME 1 A ‘Abd Allah ibn Yasin: Almoravid: Sahara ‘Abd al-Mu’min: Almohad Empire, 1140–1269 ‘Abd al-Qadir ‘Abouh, Muhammad Abu Madian, al-Shadhili and the Spread of Sufism in the Maghrib Abuja Accra Achebe, Chinua Adal: Ibrahim, Ahmad ibn, Conflict with Ethiopia, 1526–1543 Addis Ababa African Development Bank Africanus, Leo Afrikaans and Afrikaner Nationalism, Nineteenth Century Aghlabid Amirate of Ifriqiya (800–909) Agriculture, Cash Crops, Food Security Ahidjo, Ahmadou Aid, International, NGOs and the State Air, Sultanate of Aja-Speaking Peoples: Aja, Fon, Ewe, Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries Aja-Speaking Peoples: Dahomey, Rise of, Seventeenth Century Akan and Asante: Farmers, Traders, and the Emergence of Akan States Akan States: Bono, Dankyira, Wassa, Akyem, Akwamu, Fante, Fifteenth to Seventeenth Centuries Akan States: Eighteenth Century Akhenaten Aksum, Kingdom of Alcohol: Popular Culture, Colonial Control Alexandria Alexandria and Early Christianity: Egypt Algeria: Algiers and Its Capture, 1815–1830 Algeria: Conquest and Resistance, 1831–1879 .
LIST OF ENTRIES: THEMATIC Early Prehistory Climate and Vegetational Change Humankind: Hominids, Early: Origins of Olduwan and Acheulian: Early Stone Age Permanent Settlement, Early Rock Art: Eastern Africa Rock Art, Saharan Rock Art: Southern Africa Rock Art: Western and Central Africa Stone Age (Later): Central and Southern Africa Stone Age (Later): Eastern Africa Stone Age (Later): Nile Valley Stone Age (Later): Sahara and North Africa Stone Age (Later): Western Africa Stone Age, Middle: Cultures Later Prehistory and Ancient History Akhenaten Aksum, Kingdom of Alexandria and Early Christianity: Egypt Augustine, Catholic Church: North Africa Berbers: Ancient North Africa Byzantine Africa, 533–710 Carthage Crop Cultivation: The Evidence Domestication, Plant and Animal, History of Donatist Church: North Africa Egypt, Ancient, and Africa Egypt, Ancient: Agriculture Egypt, Ancient: Architecture Egypt, Ancient: Chronology Egypt, Ancient: Economy: Redistributive: Palace, Temple Egypt, Ancient: Funeral Practices and Mummification Egypt, Ancient: Hieroglyphics and Origins of Alphabet Egypt, Ancient: Literacy Egypt, Ancient: Middle Kingdom: Historical Outline Egypt, Ancient: New Kingdom and the Colonization of Nubia Egypt, Ancient: Old Kingdom and its Contacts to the South: Historical Outline Egypt, Ancient: Predynastic Egypt and Nubia: Historical Outline Egypt, Ancient: Ptolemaic Dynasty: Historical Outline .
INTRODUCTION African history as a modern academic discipline came of age in the 1950s, the decade of African nationalism that saw the parallel emergence of African institutions of higher education on the continent. The true origins of African higher education can be traced back many centuries to the Islamic universities of North Africa, Timbuktu, and Cairo, while the origins of recorded history itself are to be found in the scrolls of ancient Egypt, probably the oldest recorded history in the world. Beyond the reaches of the Roman Empire in North Africa, the tradition of keeping written records of events, ideas, and dynasties was followed, almost continuously, by the priests and scholars of ancient, medieval, and modern Ethiopia. Meanwhile, preliterate African societies recorded their histories in the oral memories and ancestral traditions that were faithfully handed down from generation to generation. Sometimes these were adapted to suit the political imperatives of current ruling elites, but as the modern academic historian knows only too well, the written record is similarly vulnerable to the interpretation of the recorder. Before the European incursion at the end of the nineteenth century, literate Africans in western and southern Africa had appreciated the importance of recording oral traditions and writing the history of their own people. Following the colonial intrusion, however, Europeans took over the writing of African history, and interpreted it primarily as a timeless backdrop to their own appearance on the scene. They brought with them not only the social Darwinism of the imperial project, but also the perspective of their own historical traditions. Thus, early colonial historians saw an Africa of warring “tribes” peopled by waves of migration, such as Roman imperialists had seen and conquered in Western Europe some 2000 years earlier. To these historians, African peoples had no history of significance and were distinguished only by a variety of custom and tradition. Any contrary evidence of indigenous sophistication and development was interpreted as the work of outside (by implication, northern Eurasian) immigration or influence. The origins of Great Zimbabwe (a Shona kingdom founded between 1100 and 1450), originally believed by European colonial historians to be non-African despite much evidence to the contrary, proved to be the most notorious and persistent of these myths. Despite early academic challenges, these European-constructed myths about Africa’s past exerted a dominant influence on approaches to African history until well into the second half of the twentieth century. Encouraged and supported by a handful of European and North American academics, pioneering Africans seized the opportunities offered by the newly open academic world that emerged after World War II. So began the mature study of African history, which established the subject as a modern, respected, academic discipline. The fruits of this discipline were summarized in two major collective works, written and published primarily in the 1970s and 1980s, the Cambridge History of Africa (8 volumes, 1975– 1986) and the UNESCO General History of Africa (8 volumes, 1981–1993). .