EPISTEMOLOGY Epistemology: Contemporary Readings is a comprehensive anthology that draws together classic and contemporary readings from leading philosophers writing on the major themes in epistemology. The book begins with an extended introduction by Robert Audi, one of the leading experts in the ﬁeld of epistemology, in which he sets the stage for the themes of the reader. Chapters appear under the headings: • Perception • Inductive inference • Memory • The architecture of knowledge • Reasonandtheapriori • The analysis of knowledge • Testimony • Skepticism • Inference in general Each section is prefaced by an introductory essay by the editor which guides students gently into each topic. Study questions follow every article and a bibliography is provided at the end of each chapter.
Routledge Contemporary Readings in Philosophy Series Editor: Paul K. Moser Loyola University of Chicago Routledge Contemporary Readings in Philosophy is a major new series of philosophy anthologies aimed at undergraduate students taking core philosophy disciplines. It is also a companion series to the highly successful Routledge Contemporary Introductions to Philosophy. Each book of readings provides an overview of a core general subject in philosophy, offering students an accessible transition from introductory to higher-level undergraduate work in that subject.
For my students First published 2002 by Routledge 11 New Fetter Lane, London EC4P 4EE Simultaneously published in the USA and Canada by Routledge 29 West 35th Street, New York, NY 10001 Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group © 2002 Selection and editorial matter, Michael Huemer; Introduction, Robert Audi This edition published in the Taylor & Francis e-Library, 2005.
CONTENTS Preface vii Acknowledgements ix Introduction: A Narrative Survey of Classical and Contemporary Positions in Epistemology 1 PART I: SOURCES OF JUSTIFICATION AND KNOWLEDGE 1 PERCEPTION 27 John Locke, Essay Concerning Human Understanding 32 George Berkeley, Of The Principles of Human Knowledge 37 David Hume, “Of the Academical or Sceptical Philosophy” 46 Thomas Reid, Essays on the Intellectual Powers of Man 51 Bertrand Russell, The Problems of Philosophy 64 J.L. Austin, Sense and Sensibilia 74 2 MEMORY 85 Bertrand Russell, “Memory” 88 Norman Malcolm, “A Deﬁnition of Factual Memory” 91 John Pollock and Joseph Cruz, “Reasoning and Memory” 104 Michael Huemer, “The Problem of Memory Knowledge” 113 3 REASON AND THE A PRIORI 125 Plato,Meno 131 Immanuel Kant, Critique of Pure Reason 142 Bertrand Russell, The Problems of Philosophy 152 A.J. Ayer, “The Elimination of Metaphysics” 166 W.V. Quine, “Two Dogmas of Empiricism” 176 Rudolf Carnap, Philosophical Foundations of Physics 194 Laurence BonJour, “Appendix: Non-Euclidean Geometry and Relativity” 208 4 TESTIMONY 217 John Locke, Essay Concerning Human Understanding 219 David Hume, “Of Miracles” 221 Thomas Reid, Inquiry into the Human Mind 234 C.A.J. Coady, “Testimony and Observation” 239 v.
PREFACE This anthology is designed primarily for use in undergraduate courses in epis- temology, although it may also provide a useful reference for graduate students studying the subject. The topics have been chosen to enable it to serve as a useful companion to Robert Audi’s comprehensive and widely-used Epistemology: A Contemporary Introduction to the Theory of Knowledge. Professor Audi’s introduction indicates many of the points of contact between this book and his.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The editors and publishers would like to thank the following copyright holders for permission to reprint material: Locke, John, from Essay Concerning Human Understanding, edited by Peter H.
INTRODUCTION: A Narrative Survey of Classical and Contemporary Positions in Epistemology Robert Audi This book presents a quite comprehensive set of readings that are excellent for courses in epistemology at several levels and can be used even without an accompanying textbook. They are organized by topic in a way that invites sequential study; the readings in each major area are presented in an order that both indicates historical development and facilities comprehension; and the vol- ume as a whole has a good balance: it contains classical contributions by great philosophers, inﬂuential recent essays, and contemporary papers that illustrate cutting-edge work in the ﬁeld.