RRSTTSRR Contents RRSTTSRR I I INTRODUCTION VII I I ADVISORS AND CONTRIBUTORS XI I I LIST OF ENTRIES XIII The Encyclopedia of Espionage, I I Intelligence, and Security 1 I I GLOSSARY 289 I I CHRONOLOGY 317 I I SOURCES 353 I I INDEX 403 Encyclopedia of Espionage, Intelligence, and Security V.
RRSTTSRR Introduction RRSTTSRR In composing The Encyclopedia of Espionage, Intelligence, Big Brother and the deliberately blind eye lie the shadows and Security (EEIS), our goal was to shape a modern into which terrorists often slip.
RRSTTSRR List of Entries RRSTTSRR ❘ A ❘ Army for the Liberation of Rwanda (ALIR) Army Security Agency ’Asbat al-Ansar Abu Nidal Organization (ANO) Asilomar Conference Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG) Assassination Abwehr Assassination Weapons, Mechanical ADFGX Cipher Asymmetric Warfare Aﬂatoxin ATF (United States Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Africa, Modern U.S. Security Policy and and Firearms) Interventions Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) Agent Orange Audio Ampliﬁers Air and Water Puriﬁcation, Security Issues Aum Supreme Truth (Aum) Air Force Intelligence, United States Australia, Intelligence and Security Air Force Ofﬁce of Special Investigations, United Austria, Intelligence and Security States Aviation Intelligence, History Air Marshals, United States Aviation Security Screeners, United States Air Plume and Chemical Analysis Aircraft Carrier Airline Security ❘ B ❘ Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigade Alex Boncayao Brigade (ABB) Al-Gama’a al-Islamiyya (Islamic Group, IG) B-2 Bomber Al-Ittihad al-Islami (AIAI) B-52 Al-Jama’a al-Islamiyyah al-Muqatilah bi-Libya Bacterial Biology Al-Jihad Ballistic Fingerprints Allied Democratic Forces (ADF) Ballistic Missile Defense Organization, United Al-Qaeda (also known as Al-Qaida) States Americas, Modern U.S. Security Policy and Ballistic Missiles Interventions Balloon Reconnaissance, History Ames (Aldrich H.) Espionage Case Basque Fatherland and Liberty (ETA) Anthrax Bathymetric Maps Anthrax, Terrorist Use as a Biological Weapon Bay of Pigs Anthrax Vaccine Belgium, Intelligence and Security Agencies Anthrax Weaponization Belly Buster Hand Drill Antiballistic Missile Treaty Berlin Airlift Antibiotics Berlin Tunnel Anti-Imperialist Territorial Nuclei (NTA) Berlin Wall APIS (Advance Passenger Information System) Biochemical Assassination Weapons Archeology and Artifacts, Protection of during War Biocontainment Laboratories Architecture and Structural Security Biodetectors Area 51 (Groom Lake, Nevada) Bio-Engineered Tissue Constructs Argentina, Intelligence and Security Bio-Flips Argonne National Laboratory Biological and Biomimetic Systems Armed Islamic Group (GIA) Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention Arms Control, United States Bureau Biological Input/Output Systems (BIOS) Encyclopedia of Espionage, Intelligence, and Security XIII.
F RRSTTSRR RRSTTSRR ﬁghters. The aircraft was also deployed in Operation Allied F-117A Stealth Fighter Force in 1999, when it led the ﬁrst North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) strike against Yugoslavia on March 24. Additionally, the Nighthawk was selected to strike Striking and unusual in appearance, the birdlike F-117A targets in downtown Baghdad in Operation Iraqi Freedom Nighthawk is the world’s ﬁrst aircraft designed to make in 2003, not only because its invisibility to radar made it full use of stealth technology. Conceived and designed the safest craft to use, but also because its extraordinary in just 31 months at the Lockheed Advanced Develop- accuracy made it capable of performing its job with mini- ment Projects “Skunk Works” in Burbank, California, the mal harm to innocent bystanders.
G RRSTTSRR RRSTTSRR Although the army had developed a Military Intelli- G–2 gence Division (MID) at the end of World War I, its re- sources were limited, even during World War II. At the same time, the war ﬁnally saw the transfer of signals intelligence from the signal corps to G–2. In a 1946 reor- The term G–2 refers to the intelligence staff of a unit in the ganization of the army, MID was placed over the Army United States Army. It is contrasted with G–1 (personnel), Security Agency (ASA) and the Counter Intelligence Corps G–3 (operations), and G–4 (supply). In the navy, these (CIC), but in contrast to this emphasis on signals intelli- sections have their counterparts, each with an N– designa- gence, there was no command concerned with human tion, while at the level of the Joint Staff, the sections use and imagery intelligence.
H RRSTTSRR RRSTTSRR Hackers. HAMAS operates primarily in the West Bank, Gaza Strip, and Israel. In August 1999, Jordanian authorities SEE Computer Hackers. closed the group’s Political Bureau ofﬁces in Amman, arrested its leaders, and prohibited the group from operat- ing on Jordanian territory. HAMAS leaders are also pres- ent in other parts of the Middle East, including Syria, Lebanon, and Iran.