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Acknowledgments I am especially indebted to the librarians who gave of their time and talent to help create this book. Ronald Sims, special collections librarian of the Galter Health Sciences Library of Northwestern University, could, at a moment’s notice, ﬁnd “lost” references. Mr. Sims also did his best to teach me how to navigate the Internet. Carol Jeuell, reference librarian for the Brenneman Library of the Children’s Memorial Hospital, Chicago, was always able to track down obscure journal articles; she kindly provided me with a copy of A Century of Surgery, 1880–1990by Dr. Mark Ravitch. Candace Heise, reference librarian for the Sanibel Public Library, through intra- library loan opened to door to the world’s great libraries and invariably found important reference books and journals.
Table of Contents Acknowledgments v Introduction 1 PART I: IN THE BEGINNING 1: Aboriginal Surgery 5 2: Egyptian Papyri and Ritual Surgery 11 3: Biblical and Talmudic Accounts of Pediatric Conditions, Malformations and Diseases (Juda Jona, M.D.) 15 4: Pediatric Surgery in Ancient India (V. Raveenthiran, M.D.) 20 5: Traditional Chinese Medicine ( Jin-z he Zhang, M.D.) 25 6: The Ancient Greeks and Hippocrates 29 7: The Alexandrians and Galen 37 8: From Galen to the Crusades 45 9: Byzantium to Baghdad 48 10: Salerno and the Universities 56 11: The Anatomists 64 12: Ambroise Paré (Praveen Goyal, M.D., and Andrew Williams, M.D.) 68 13: Some New Birth Defects 72 14: Return to Padua 79 15: The Eighteenth Century 84 16: The Nineteenth Century 93 17: Pediatric Surgery in the Age of Lister 103 18: Prelude to the Twentieth Century 110 19: Children’s Surgery Comes of Age 113 vii.
Introduction Children’s surgery was the stepchild of adult medicine and surgery until the second half of the twentieth century; however, from the beginning of recorded medical history, some physicians and surgeons paid particular attention to birth defects and childhood injuries.
CHAPTER 1 Aboriginal Surgery The healing arts most likely grew out of an instinctive impulse to nurture a sick, helpless infant. Our early ancestors may have learned to care for wounds and the healing properties of plants by observing animals, especially our closest relatives, the great apes.