1111 2 3 4 BUDDHAS AND KAMI 5111 6 IN JAPAN 7 8 9 Honji suijaku as a combinatory paradigm 1011 1 2 13111 4 5 6 Edited by Mark Teeuwen 7 8 and Fabio Rambelli 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40111 1 2 3 44111.
First published 2003 by RoutledgeCurzon 11 New Fetter Lane, London EC4P 4EE Simultaneously published in the USA and Canada by RoutledgeCurzon 29 West 35th Street, New York, NY 10001 This edition published in the Taylor & Francis e-Library, 2003.
1111 2 3 4 CONTRIBUTORS 5111 6 7 8 9 1011 1 2 13111 Irit Averbuch Senior Lecturer, Tel Aviv University, Israel 4 Lucia Dolce Lecturer in Japanese Religions, School of Oriental and African 5 Studies, University of London, UK 6 7 Allan Grapard ISF Professor of Shinto Studies, University of California, 8 Santa Barbara, US 9 ø Sato¯ Hiroo Professor, T hoku University, Japan 20111 1 Susan Blakeley Klein Associate Professor, University of California, Irvine, 2 US 3 Irene H. Lin Ph.D., Stanford University, US 4 5 Iyanaga Nobumi Lecturer, Tokyo University, Japan 6 Fabio Rambelli Associate Professor, Department of Cultural Studies, 7 Sapporo University, Japan 8 9 Bernhard Scheid Researcher, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna, 30111 Austria 1 Inoue Takami Doctoral candidate, University of California, Santa Barbara, 2 US 3 4 Mark Teeuwen Professor, University of Oslo, Norway 5 6 7 8 9 40111 1 2 3 44111 vii.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The editors are grateful to the International Shinto Foundation for a grant that enabled them to write the Introduction and to complete their respective chapters for this book. Thanks are also due to the Nara National Museum for kindly supplying the cover picture and granting permission to reproduce it.
1111 2 3 4 PREFACE 5 6 7 8 9 1011 1 2 13111 Japanese and Chinese personal names are given in the traditional order, with 4 the family name ﬁrst. For Japanese names and terms, the Hepburn tran- 5 scription is used; Chinese names and terms are given in pinyin, followed, if 6 relevant, by the Japanese reading. Characters are given in the text only when 7 this is deemed necessary for the argument, or when the characters are so 8 obscure as to be difﬁcult to ﬁnd in reference works and dictionaries.
1111 2 1 3 4 INTRODUCTION 5111 6 Combinatory religion and the honji suijaku 7 8 paradigm in pre-modern Japan 9 1011 1 Mark Teeuwen and Fabio Rambelli 2 13111 4 5 6 7 This book discusses a central issue in the history of pre-modern Japanese 8 religion, namely the idea that local, native deities (kami) are emanations of 9 universal, Buddhist divinities – a notion known in Japanese as honji suijaku 20111 (“original forms of deities and their local traces”). It was this idea that lay 1 at the basis of Buddhist cults of kami, of the incorporation of kami shrines 2 in Buddhist temples, and of the development of Buddhist-inspired kami cults 3 which at a later stage developed into an independent religion, namely Shinto.
2 FROM THUNDER CHILD TO DHARMA-PROTECTOR ø ø ø D j h shi and the Buddhist appropriation of Japanese local deities* Irene H. Lin Introduction My inquiry concerns something which appears to lie on the margins of øø Japanese and Buddhist literature, namely a tale about the thunder child D j ø ø h shi found in the Nihon ry iki, the earliest collection of Buddhist legends in Japan composed at the beginning of the ninth century. Containing a mélange of Buddhist and folkloric elements, this story is a distinctive Buddhist product and as such provides a lens for viewing the initial encounter of Buddhism with Japanese local culture.
1111 2 3 3 4 THE SOURCE OF 5111 6 ORACULAR SPEECH: 7 8 ABSENCE? PRESENCE? OR 9 PLAIN TREACHERY? 1011 1 ¨ ¨ The case of Hachiman Usa-g gotakusensh 2 13111 4 5 Allan Grapard 6 7 8 9 20111 What does follow is that we can say the following words here 1 without contradicting ourselves: 2 “The truth is that truth varies.” 3 Paul Veyne1 4 5 6 In this chapter I wish to address a number of issues concerning the nature 7 of oracular pronouncements in the Hachiman cult. The focus of my investi- 8 gation is a fourteenth century document, the title of which – Hachiman ¨ ¨ 9 Usa-g gotakusensh – I choose to translate as “Compendium of Oracles 30111 Proffered by Hachiman at the Usa Sanctuary.”2 It is quite a remarkable text 1 and, as we will see, the very structure of its organization compels one to see 2 in time and space the key settings for the production of oracular speech – 3 and its interpretation. The original questions presenting themselves when 4 confronting oracular pronouncements are not easy ones: Whence does this 5 special kind of speech, so foreign to us in its style, come from? What kind 6 of speech, precisely, is it? And what kind of intentionality does an oracle 7 represent? I am sure that the answer to these questions cannot be yielded by 8 a single presentation on a single document. Perhaps, however, it is possible 9 to raise some initial queries concerning the absence of the speaker and the 40111 presence of the interpreter, and the nature of the relation between text and 1 commentary.
1111 2 4 3 4 WRATHFUL DEITIES AND 5111 6 SAVING DEITIES* 7 8 9 ø Sat Hiroo 1011 1 2 13111 4 What happened when Buddhism arrived in Japan, and met the Japanese kami? 5 How did the two relate to each other, and what changes occurred in religious 6 thought and practice? These problems have been addressed by many scholars, 7 not only from a purely historical perspective, but also as a starting point for 8 reﬂection on the adaptation of foreign cultural elements in Japan. Traditionally, 9 this topic has been approached from a purely doctrinal or intellectual angle, 20111 and it has taken the form of tracing the development of the relation between 1 the kami and Buddhism as a process of progressive amalgamation. From one 2 historical period to another, this relation is commonly thought to have passed 3 through the consecutive phases of kami-Buddhist amalgamation (shinbutsu 4 ¨ ø sh g ), honji suijaku, and, ﬁnally, inverted honji suijaku.1 5 However, this perspective has prevented us from addressing some impor- 6 tant problems. In what ways, for example, did kami and buddhas function 7 side by side during different historical periods? The dominant diachronical 8 approach needs to be supplemented with a synchronical analysis of the co- 9 existence of kami and buddhas. In other words, it is necessary to analyse the 30111 system, or the cosmology, that allowed kami and buddhas to function side 1 by side. In this chapter, I shall attempt to outline the systematic relationship 2 between kami and Buddhist divinities in the medieval period, when the 3 process of amalgamation is thought to have reached its ﬁnal stage with the 4 full development of the honji suijaku paradigm.
1111 2 5 3 4 THE CREATION OF A 5111 6 HONJI SUIJAKU DEITY 7 8 Amaterasu as the Judge of the Dead 9 1011 1 Mark Teeuwen 2 13111 4 5 6 ø ø 7 In his recent book Amaterasu no henb , Sat Hiroo traces the transforma- 8 tion of the imperial ancestor and sun-deity Amaterasu from an ancient into 9 a medieval type of kami.1Amaterasu, originally a local sun-deity enshrined 20111 in outlying Ise, was in the seventh century raised to the status of supreme 1 ancestor of a divine imperial dynasty, as part of the larger project of building ø 2 a centralised imperial state in Japan. However, Sat argues, the signiﬁcance 3 of Amaterasu’s promotion to the highest position among the Japanese kami 4 was initially limited by a number of constraints. One of these was that, like 5 all kami of the ancient period, Amaterasu retained the character of a 6 tatarigami – a deity who not only bestows blessings, but also lays curses 7 when offended. Like all tatarigami, Amaterasu was a double-edged sword: 8 her great power could be used to subdue others, but could also strike back 9 at those who tried to wield it.2Another important limitation was Amaterasu’s 30111 deﬁnition as the clan deity (ujigami) of the imperial lineage. The shrine of 1 Amaterasu at Ise served as a Chinese-style ancestral mausoleum, where 2 worship by others than the emperor was strictly forbidden; this precluded 3 Amaterasu from playing any role at all in society at large.