Contents List of Figures .v List of Tables .ix Contributors .x Editor’s Foreword .xi 1. Introduction: Population and the Dynamics of Change in Roman South-Eastern England .1 Michael Fulford and Martyn Allen 2. The Environment of Southern Roman Britain .15 Petra Dark 3. The Countryside of the South-East in the Roman Period .35 David Bird 4. Kent Roman Rural Settlement .55 Paul Booth 5. Rural Settlement in Roman Sussex .84 David Rudling 6. Rural Settlement in Roman-Period Surrey.111 David Bird 7. Market Forces - A Discussion of Crop Husbandry, Horticulture and Trade in Plant Resources in Southern England .134 Gill Campbell 8. Querns and Millstones in Late Iron Age and Roman London and South-East England .156 Chris Green 9. The Exploitation of Animals and Their Contribution to Urban Food Supply in Roman Southern England .180 Mark Maltby AAggrriiccuullttuurree aanndd IInndduussttrryy.iinnddbb iiiiii 1111//3300//22001166 55::1122::5500 PPMM.
Contributors MARTYN ALLEN, PhD, Department of Archaeology, PROFESSOR MICHAEL FULFORD, CBE, FBA, Department School of Archaeology, Geography and of Archaeology, School of Archaeology, Geography Environmental Science, University of Reading, and Environmental Science, University of Reading, Whiteknights, PO Box 227, Reading RG6 6AB; Whiteknights, PO Box 227, Reading RG6 6AB; [email protected] [email protected]
Editor’s Foreword David Bird This book oﬀ ers an up-to-date assessment of our knowledge of rural settlement, agriculture and industry in and around the three counties to the south of Roman London. It had its origins in a series of conferences set up by the Roman Studies Group of Surrey Archaeological Society, one of several active groups and committees in that Society. The Group was established in 2004, since when it has been responsible for a successful ﬁ eldwork programme that has added a great deal to our knowledge of Surrey in the Roman period. The biennial conferences were initiated by Edward Walker, starting with the subject of water in southern Roman Britain in 2008. Thanks to Edward’s hard work and persistence, the event was a great success and set a high standard of well-qualiﬁ ed speakers, which has been continued in subsequent meetings. Two of these conferences, also organised by Edward, tackled the themes ﬁ rst of food and agriculture, and then industry. It was felt appropriate to publish the proceedings and the talks given at these two meetings form the core of this book. Additional specialist papers were commissioned to tackle subjects not covered in the original programmes.
Chapter 1 Introduction: Population and the Dynamics of Change in Roman South-Eastern England Michael Fulford and Martyn Allen Roman Britain stands out in a variety of ways from the Britain of the immediately preceding centuries and from the Britain of the succeeding centuries. The most celebrated and the most obvious distinguishing features are the military and urban centres and the roads which linked them together, the rural architecture of the countryside exempliﬁ ed by buildings in masonry such as villas and temples, and the rich and voluminous material culture consumed by the various populations. A variety of agencies drove these changes: on the one hand, military and civil administrations imposing new structures for the province as a whole, on the other, competition among local elites using their (largely) landed wealth to take advantage of the opportunities that new concepts and technologies in building and manufacturing gave them to provide state-of-the-art public and private buildings in town and country and to produce consumer goods for the wider population.
Chapter 2 The Environment of Southern Roman Britain Petra Dark Introduction The environmental context is key to understanding the types of agriculture possible, and the availability of vital resources for industry, in southern Roman Britain. ‘Environmental’ evidence is also critical to understanding how these activities aﬀ ected local soils, watercourses and plant and animal communities. Until recently there has been relatively little well-dated evidence for many aspects of the environment of this period (see overviews by K. Dark and P. Dark (1997, 18–42) and P. Dark (1999; 2000, 81–129)), but the last decade has seen a welcome increase in relevant data, allowing an increasingly detailed picture to be constructed.
Chapter 3 The Countryside of the South-East in the Roman Period David Bird Introduction This paper aims to provide a brief overview of the geographical and historical background for the Wealden counties in the Roman period. It will also touch on some aspects that do not otherwise receive much coverage in the succeeding chapters, including particularly the Weald and the eﬀ ect that the foundation of London had on the area as a whole.
Chapter 4 Kent Roman Rural Settlement Paul Booth Synopsis Kent is rich in evidence for Roman rural settlement but the distribution of this evidence is unbalanced, quantitatively towards the north and east of the county and, as far as excavated evidence goes, has been until relatively recently disproportionately focussed on villas. Do these emphases reﬂ ect the real character of the rural settlement of the county or do they result from a variety of other factors? A broad brush characterisation of the rural settlement pattern, particularly using data from selected recent ﬁ eldwork projects, will be used as a basis for attempting to address these and other questions, before a brief consideration of what seem to be some of the most important issues currently relating to rural settlement in the region. This review also takes account of some aspects of the ‘small towns’ of Roman Kent, on the basis that these tend to be integral to local rural settlement patterns in a way that the more formal nucleated sites are not. Introduction: setting the scene A brief summary such as this is inevitably partial. It may draw unduly on evidence from projects with which the writer is most familiar (for example, the work synthesised in Booth 2011a; Andrews et al. 2015), and in more general terms will emphasise the results of some substantial infrastructure-related projects, both because their scale aﬀ ords glimpses of (admittedly very incomplete) rural landscapes rather than just of individual settlements and also because their planning tends to result in the opposite, in archaeological terms, of the traditional practice of cherry picking sites (essentially villas) for excavation. A further key aspect which makes these projects particularly signiﬁ cant is that they typically incorporate systematic collection and examination of biological evidence for the rural environment and economy, while such work has not been a regular characteristic of earlier excavations. The history of work on rural settlement in Kent has been broadly in line with national trends, which is to say that AAggrriiccuullttuurree aanndd IInndduussttrryy.iinnddbb 5555 1111//3300//22001166 55::1122::5544 PPMM.
Chapter 5 Rural Settlement in Roman Sussex David Rudling Introduction The Roman occupation of Britain resulted in dramatic alterations in the social and economic environments. The results of these changes, together with other major developments in technology, make the Roman period one of the most dynamic and distinctive episodes in the history of this island. In this paper I will examine the nature of Roman-period rural settlement in Sussex (Fig. 5.1) and consider some of the impacts of Rome on both the landscape and the indigenous population. The observations and case-studies that I have selected are aimed to complement and update previous reviews that I have published (Rudling 1979; 1982a; 1998; 1999; 2003a). The reader’s attention is also drawn to a number of other general reviews of Roman-period Sussex: Winbolt (1935), Cunliﬀ e (1973) and Russell (2006). In addition, a major national research project is currently being undertaken in order to assess the contribution of developer-funded archaeology to the study of rural settlement in Roman Britain. Selected evidence from such investigations, much of which is contained in ‘grey literature’, together with similar evidence from research-driven projects, is being used to create a powerful GIS- linked database (see Fulford and Holbrook 2014; Fulford and Allen this volume; Allen 2016). Also, locally in West Sussex, an extensive LiDAR survey with follow-up ﬁ eldwork is being carried out by the South Downs National Park Authority as part of its ‘Secrets of the High Woods Project’. This research is revealing a large number of previously unrecorded sites and landscape features of all periods. In contrast, this paper deals only with traditionally published sources, and it can be expected that the results of the ongoing national and West Sussex projects will provide much new information and challenge some of the conclusions reached in this and earlier narratives.